شناسایی و اولویت بندی مهم ترین عوامل مؤثر در پیشبرد برنامه های مدیریت شهری در حوزه بافت فرسوده (مطالعه موردی: شهر ماکو)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد شهرسازی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار گروه هنر و معماری، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

شهرها که یکی از سکونتگاه­ها و مکان تجمع زیستی انسان از ابتدا تاکنون بوده­اند، مجموعه­ای از عوامل زنده و پویا هستند و ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ می­باشند. ﻧﻘﺶ و ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺳﻜﻮنتگاه­ﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ کننده بوده و امروزه در پی روند شتابان توسعه و تحولات شهری در کشور، فراهم­سازی محیط زندگی متناسب با این تغییرات جزء جدانشدنی برنامه­ریزی­ و مدیریت شهری شده است. در سال­های اخیر به منظور پاسخگویی به این نیازها، بافت­های فرسوده شهری که اصالت و هویت هر شهری بیشتر در آن متجلی می­باشد، اهمیت عمده­ای یافته و مورد توجه ویژه قرار گرفته­اند. هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی، ارزیابی و تحلیل عوامل کلیدی مؤثر بر فرآیند برنامه­ریزی بافت فرسوده ماکو می­باشد. این تحقیق بر اساس هدف، کاربردی بوده و ماهیت داده­های آن کیفی است. بر اساس گردآوری داده­ها نیز، اسنادی و پیمایشی بوده و روش تحقیق آن، تحلیل ساختاری است. داده­های اولیه به منظور تحقق هدف پژوهش، 22 عامل و متغیر در قالب 5 دسته معیار می­باشد که با استفاده از نرم­افزار میک­مک جهت شناسایی عوامل کلیدی و به کمک فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی جهت اولویت­بندی تحلیل گردیده­اند. نهایتاً 11 عامل و متغیر شیوه مدیریت؛ طرح­های ساماندهی، بهسازی و نوسازی بافت فرسوده؛ مدیران و نیروی انسانی متخصص؛ فراهم بودن زیرساخت­ها و امکانات زیربنایی اولیه؛ هماهنگی دستگاه­های اجرایی؛ مسکن و زمین؛ ظرفیت­های اقتصادی-محیطی؛ محیط زیست و منابع اکولوژیکی؛ سرمایه­گذاری (دولتی و خصوصی)؛ تحقیق و توسعه و مشارکت به عنوان عوامل کلیدی و پیشران فرآیند برنامه­ریزی شناسایی گردیده و مبنای ارائه پیشنهادها و راهکارهایی جهت پیشبرد برنامه­ها و دستیابی به اهداف آتی مدیریت شهری در حوزه بافت مذکور قرار گرفته­اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification and Prioritization of the Most Important Factors to Advance Urban Management Plans in the Area of Old Texture (Case Study: Maku city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farshid Hashemzadeh Ghal’ejough 1
  • saman ebizadeh 2
  • Esmaeil SafarAlizadeh 3
1 MSc of Regional Planning, Guilan University, Rasht
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Art, Payam noor university, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Geography & Urban Planning, Payam Noor University, tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

          Cities which have been one of the habitats and places for human life since the beginning, are a collection of living and dynamic factors and considered as a source of development. The role of urban management is very important and decisive in the development and improvement of urban settlements, and today, due to the rapid urban development process in the country, the provision of a living environment proportional to these changes has become a crucial part of urban management. In recent years, in order to meet these needs, urban old textures, in which the originality and identity of each city are more evident, have become very important and they are highly considered. The main objective of the present research is to identify, evaluate and analyze the key factors affecting the process of Maku's old texture planning. This research is practical based on the goal, and the nature of the data is qualitative. It is documentary and survey, based on the data collection and its research method is structure analyze. Primary data in order to achieve the research goal, includes 22 factors and variables in the form of five categories of criteria which are analyzed by using of MICMAC software and the help of Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP) for prioritization to identify the key factors. Finally, 11 factors and variables of management style, renovation of old textures, specialist directors and staff, availability of basic infrastructures and facilities, coordination of executive organs, land and housing, economic-environmental capacities, environment and ecological resources, investment(public and private), research and development, and participation have been identified as key factors, and they are the basis for providing suggestions and strategies to advance plans and achieve the future goals of urban management in the context of the mentioned texture.
Extended abstract
Introduction:
  The countries in the world, whether developed or developing, have faced or will face the phenomenon of urban population growth. It is predicted that 64 percent of the population of developing countries and 86 percent of the developed countries will be urbanized by the year 2050. Such unprecedented growth will affect the urban facilities and cause them to be disproportionately distributed. The rapid growth of the cities in Iran has also caused many problems and affected all aspects of the urbanization. One of these problems is the existence of the old textures, and due to the lack of a proper urban management, these textures have faced many problems, therefore a proper planning to improve their quality of life is inevitable. Maku is the most northern city in the West Azerbaijan Province and also has old texture, and requires a rigorous and comprehensive approach to the factors which are connected to achieve the vision and goals of the organization. Therefore, the main issue of the research is identifying and prioritizing the key factors which are affecting the planning of the old texture of maku.
Methodology:
This research is practical based on the goal, and the nature of the data is qualitative. It is documentary and survey, based on the data collection and its research method is structure analysis. Required data were collected from development plans, related organizations and also using questionnaire and Delphi method. Prioritization of factors is done by AHP analysis and and identifying key factors is based on the Interactions Matrix and it is done by the MICMAC software.
 Results and discussion:
Initially, the basic factors influencing the planning process were analyzed by Micmac and it was found out that the planning and management requirements, financing mechanisms, science and technology, are the influential factors in  planning process, and environmental and population-social variables are two Affective factors. Management method and tourism capabilities are also the most effective and affected factors, respectively.In the next step, AHP analysis is used to rank the factors, and the results indicate that the planning and management requirements, environmental factors, and financing mechanisms are the system's most important criteria with the significance coefficients of 0.553, 0.159 and 0.153, respectively. and population-social factors and science and technology are also less significant with significance coefficients of 0.076 and 0.059. Among the variables, management method, development plans and investment are ranked first, respectively, and migration, natural hazards and technological developments are less important and ranked in lower places. By comparing and combining the results of both analyzes, finally 11 important factors were selected as the target variables. These include management method, old texture development plans, expert managers and manpower, infrastructure and facilities, coordination of organizations, land and housing, economic potential, environment and ecological resources, investment, research and development, and Participation.
Conclusion:
In this study, 22 primary factors were collected in the form of five criteria of planning and management requirements, financing mechanisms, science and technology, environmental factors and population-social factors. In the next step, the effective factors of planning system and their prioritization are identified using cross-effects matrix in MICMAC software and AHP analysis. Finally, 11 factors were identified and selected as target variables. In this paper, the urban management is considered as a planning system and the factors affecting the management of the old texture are evaluated in the study case of Maku through structural analysis, which is one of the Foresight research methods, and the relationships between these variables are analyzed based on cross-effects matrix. The results of the influencing factors and their prioritization have been evaluated and rated by the academic professors and experts of the field of study, which Indicates that the results are practical and paying attention to them can make a big progress in implementation of the programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • urban development
  • Planning
  • Old Texture
  • Key factors
  • Prioritization
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