عنوان مقاله [English]
Bam cBam city as a city with background of major disaster has symptoms of depression, anxiety, post injury and anger as a Consequences of the 2003 earthquake. The problems of the lack of happiness or vitality of the citizens are exacerbated and it threatens mental health, psychological energy and individual motivation. The aim of research, is to analyze the level of happiness feeling, and explaining the root causes. This research is descriptive-analytic and Sample size is 330 units. Hypotheses are: lack of happiness, limitation in components of the happy city and, their significant relationship. Analysis Models, T Test, Anova, .chi2 the findings shows that 67% of the individuals believes that their level of happiness and vitality is very low to low. In addition, 85% of these people are dissatisfied because, their satisfactions, are: for green space, 2.6; leisure time; 2.8; sports facilities 2.5 and living environment, 2.6. Thus, they are lower than average (3). Therefore, All hypotheses were confirmed at the significant level (0/00). The findings shows that 67% of the individuals believe that their level of happiness and vitality is low to very low. In addition, 85% of these people are dissatisfied of the component of happy city. Citizens' satisfaction from these components, are: for green space indicators, 2.6; leisure time; 2.8; sports facilities 2.5 and living environment, 2.6, therefore, are lower than average (3). It is recommended that the urban political and cultural managers of Bam must planning for improving the components of happy city.
Introduction, Implementation of research is inevitable, Bam is a city with a history of major disasters, with depressive symptoms, anxiety, trauma and anger due to the aftermath of the 2003 earthquake (about 27,000 dead and 30,000 injured). The consequences of this great ordeal exacerbate the problems of citizens' lack of happiness and vitality and endanger their mental health, mental energy and personal motivation. More than 23 percent of the country, however, has symptoms of mental disorder, with 12 percent of men and 16 percent of women in the country suffering from depression. Happiness as one of the most important mental health factors is one of the most fundamental concepts in positive psychology. And it is a necessity that gives meaning to life and eliminates negative emotions such as frustration and despair.
This research addresses three main questions: A) what is the level of happiness, or sadness, of the citizens of Bam (15 years after the earthquake?), B) How do citizens judge the status of the main components of the happy city in Bam? C) Is there a significant relationship between the status of the components of a happy city and the level of happiness and vitality of citizens? The purpose of the study is to analyze the level of happiness and vitality or the feeling of sadness and frustration of citizens, also explain the roots and its underlying factors (green space, leisure and sports facilities, etc.) Which is in the area of urban planning. And the significance level test is their relationship.
Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive-analytic one in terms of purpose, applied research and also a survey data collection method.
The target population of the study is: citizens of 15 years and more in Bam city and sample size is: 350 units. The data gathering tool is a researcher-made questionnaire that specifically consists of four sections, including: (a) general characteristics; (b) access to all types of public green spaces; C) the level of satisfaction with individual life as well as the environment. Based on the four components of the happy city, the appropriate ten items were set with 5-point Likert spectrum responses. Statistical Methods: The sampling method was simple random sampling; the validity of the research instrument was estimated using experts' opinions and pilot questionnaire and reliability was calculated and confirmed based on Cronbach's alpha (75-92%). Analysis Models: To test hypotheses, with considering the scale of variables, From single-group T test, independent t-test, ANOVA, χ2 test, crosstabs analysis and Levin test (to determine variance in independent t-test) Used. Research Area is Bam City. That has 150000 population. It is a historical city located 200 kilometers from Kerman (Iran Statistical Center, 2016). It has more than 30 customary-historical urban neighborhoods, 6 districts and two urban areas (Bam Master Plan, 2016). The reason for the choice of the city of Bam is the aftermath of the great earthquake of year 6, which left thousands dead and injured. It has physical and spatial consequences as well as profound and lasting psychological consequences, some of which are rooted in the lack of a happy element in the city.
Results and discussion: Inferential Research Findings from result shows: Hypothesis 1: Citizens of Bam face a significant shortage of happiness and vitality. According to the results of the hypothesis test, with single sample T-test model, the average citizen's sense of happiness is 2 and is lower than the defined mean (3). And it is significant at the level of 0.000. Therefore, the first hypothesis was confirmed. Hypothesis 2: The city of Bam faces with significant shortage of the four components of the happy city. To test this hypothesis, citizens' satisfaction with the status of the components of the happy city was assessed with 4 indices. Thus, citizens' satisfaction with access to public green spaces equals 2.96, Citizens' satisfaction with sports facilities, mobility and activity equals 2.5, Citizens' satisfaction with the component of leisure facilities 2.78, Bam citizens' satisfaction with the overall component of satisfaction with their individual situation and living environment is equal (2.61).
This section deals with several topics: First, linking the current research to theoretical foundation, second, the degree of consistency of current research findings with previous researches, and third, analyzing and summarizing the results of current research hypotheses, And finally the necessary suggestions are provided. In terms of linking this research with theoretical foundations, it should be noted that this research is content and methodological, in particular with three relatively new theoretical approaches, namely: (A) Balas and Darling's (2013) approach to assessing and evaluating the happiness component; and factors affecting the happiness and vitality of the community. (B) Learard's (2010) approach, which as a new method and field, deals with welfare and its classification and the extent to which its psychological needs and sensations are satisfied. 2010), See also Implicit Research (2015) on the Role of Urban Design in Creating a Happy City, Case Study of Chamran Margin Park, and further to vaziri et al (2015), Factors Influencing the Creation of happy city, and Indicators of the Concept of Happiness Emphasize the role of hangouts in the design of urban hangouts as a collective space in enhancing the emotional and cognitive dimensions of residents and thereby enhancing their happiness. Offers: 1 - Emphasize on the creation, facilitation, safety and cultural development of the public green space.2 - Emphasis on creating opportunities for sports, games, activities, mobility and promotion and cultivating its use3 - Emphasis on creating leisure facilities and promoting and cultivating its use4 - Proper effort and planning to promote a sense of satisfaction with individual life and the environment5 - Cultural planning to create an atmosphere of happiness and vitality in Bam.