عنوان مقاله [English]
In the age of globalization and competition for cities to attract citizens, investors and tourists, the importance of the image of the city and how it was perceived was emphasized. In this era, branding is a great opportunity for cities to focus on the concept of image of the city and use different tools to promote it and attract different audiences in order to economic and social goals. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception of audiences (experts, citizens and tourists) of Bushehr and to evaluate different branding tools in its formation. In this study, first, by qualitative approach and analyzing research literature, identified different components and techniques in branding and then by field study and questionnaire using compare means one-way ANOVA in SPSS software, elements of mental image formation of Bushehr city and differences between groups have been studied. Based on the research literature, the four axes of physical structure, socio-cultural characteristics, facilities and infrastructure, and advertising of branding tools are introduced. The results show that cultural and social indicators (3.25), facilities and infrastructure (3.14) had the highest impact on the individuals mind, and physical structure (2.94) and media advertising (2.03) had the least impact, there was also a significant difference between the three groups of tourists, citizens and experts. Considering the results of this study to enhance the image of Bushehr city from exterior (tourists) and interior (citizens and others) using physical intervention tools to improve the physical space of the city including urban design and landscape along with the use of advertising and Media is essential.
With the growth and development of information and communication technology and began the era of globalization, space and time have been compacted. Cities are in the process of competing for a better status by seeking an attractive image of themselves and attracting citizens and other groups, including tourists, investors and elites. In this period, the image of the city, how it is perceived and evaluated, and the communicative nature of the image, is considered more than ever. Urban branding is one of the approaches that has helped cities compete in this process of competitiveness. The focus of this approach is on the structure of the image of the city, how it is shaped and influenced by the audience, in line with economic and social goals. In this process, branding has become a key concept and has driven cities to develop brand strategy. This not only affected the planning approaches but also the image, a key concept that was somewhat distanced from its original origins by Lynch and it was regarded as a communicative, competitive, and valuable nature. Therefore, image recognition of the city has formed the basis of branding and How to influence and enhance image with different branding tools was considered. This research seeks to identify the importance and role of branding tools in shaping the image of audiences (experts, citizens, tourists) by selecting Bushehr as a case study.
The purpose of this study is applied and in terms of descriptive-analytical method which is done library and field. The sampling method of the three groups of experts, citizens and tourists was non-probable and the sample size of all three groups was calculated based on Cochran formula at 95% confidence level and 0.05 accuracy with 217, 384 and 384 respectively. Citizens 'questionnaires were prepared in all neighborhoods of Bushehr city, tourists' questionnaires in coastal area and residences and experts were provided by urban managers and related university professors. The questionnaire was developed as a Likert spectrum on the effect of each of the different indicators on audience image formation and In SPSS software, by comparing means, the effect of indices and one way regression analysis ANOVA, the significance of responses between the three groups and also binary groups were compared.
Results and discussion:
Four components of physical structure, socio-cultural characteristics, facilities and infrastructure, and advertising they have been identified as branding tools and shaping the image of the city. Implementation of flagship projects, iconic buildings, historical buildings and contexts alongside urban design and landscape design of physical components, cultural events, rituals and arts, sporting events, popular culture and vitality and social dynamics of cultural component indicators, restaurants and coffee shops. , Accommodation, Access, Shopping Centers and Recreational Infrastructure Includes Facilities and Infrastructure Indicators and all advertising tools including Internet, TV, Social Networking, Logo, icon and City Vision awareness. Surveys revealed that the social and cultural component averaged 3.25, facilities and infrastructure (3.14) had the highest impact on audience minds, and physical structure averaged (2.94) and media advertising (2.03) had the least impact. There was a significant difference between the groups of tourists, citizens and experts in the criteria.
Today, the image of the city is used as a communicative and competitive nature to attract different audiences. The branding approach seeks to enhance the image by creating a strong local identity and attractive image for external users. Given that the city has a multifaceted nature and therefore attracts diverse audiences. It is important to consider the goals and needs of audience in order to enhance image and ultimately audience's satisfaction. In Bushehr, to enhance the image of exterior (tourists) and interior (citizens and others) in addition to preserving desirable shades, the use of physical intervention tools such as urban and landscape design along with the use of advertising and media tools seems necessary.