عنوان مقاله [English]
Organizing Space can regulate the pace of activities and strengthen relevant concepts as well as human relations, and ultimately, result in behaviors that are consistent with the environment. In spite of the customary practice adopted in Iran in recent years, construction of single buildings is not recommended in zoning of urban blocks since individual buildings disrupt the urban landscape. The preferred method is to construct several buildings together as a collective assembly or cluster. The individually constructed buildings create torn-apart spaces and separate houses where the residents and constructors use all their personal power, potential, and possibilities by way of laws and regulations in order to serve their own interests and provide better lighting and further distinction for their buildings against the urban environment. The purpose of this study is to understand space organization, its different schemes, and its effect on the formation of residential complexes. This study was based on typology since typology can influence the classification of various organization schemes and since many other studies are also based on typology. The combined approach was implemented using library resources and comparative methodology. For this purpose, those residential complexes in Shiraz which complied with the project requirements were studied. Various residential complexes were classified in terms of scale and height by studying their aerial photographs, satellite maps and GIS pictures. Field visits were also conducted for this purpose. Based on the conducted studies, it was observed that the following organization schemes were implemented in Shiraz: 1) individual, 2) centralized, 3) clustered, 4) linear, and 5) mixed. Ultimately, typology tables were presented based on the organization scheme used as well as the building scale and height. The results showed that the clustered organization scheme was the governing organization scheme used in Shiraz for residential complexes. Also, the following results were obtained: 1) The most prevalent tendency in Shiraz was towards constructing irregular clusters rather than regular ones. 2) The second most prevalent tendency was towards constructing linear building clusters. 3) The central scheme (which can be adapted to building around a central courtyard, the architectural form used in traditional Iranian houses) was not very popular, perhaps due to the hindrances associated with providing adequate light and ventilation or the problems related to overlooking from the neighboring properties in this type of building.
Today, the relationship between man and space is reduced to a material pattern and the public spaces are reduced as a space for traffic and transport.The accuracy and review of the relationship between man and space can lead to strategies to improve the quality of this relationship.The emergence of residential complexes in Iran happened so fast that there was no opportunity to match the existing ideas in the traditional architecture of the Iranians with their architecture. This mismatch causes some problems between the residents of these complexes which include the cultural diversity, cultural conflicts, lack of proper social relationships, population density, social alienation, lack of cultural, educational and recreational spaces and lack of green spaces and etc. These problems are a reason to reduce the social interactions between residents (Samadifard et al 2013). Thus the recognition of residential complexes can reduce their qualitative problems.
The research method used in this study is combined. The effective strategy is the use of library resources as the literature which helps the researcher to get familiar enough with the subject of typology and organization. A comparative study was conducted in the final stage of the research and the classification was made by SPSS software after collecting data through observation and field research and the use of GIS and satellite maps.
Result and discussion:
The layout of residential complexes in Shiraz is based on a shape and epistemological approach. This study in which the classification criterion is the layout of blocks next to each other according to the different spatial combinations of plans in Shiraz five different types were found in the city, including the following ones: single, linear (strip), central (environmental) with two approaches having a central element and several central elements, a series with two regular and scattered approaches and finally a mixed types.
The research criteria and limitations have led to the selection of four main types of this category by removing the single group (because in this category there is no specific organization due to the presence of an element).Linear (strip) organization represents the direction due to their length and indicates the motion, continuity and growth (Ching 2003). This organization in complexes is mostly based on the urban arteries. Most of the complexes that were created with this type of organization are parallel or perpendicular to the surrounding streets. Linear organization creates street-like spaces due to their shape nature. In the central organization (environmental) that the residential complexes are formed around an open space, a central open space will result. According to the studies, two different types of this organization can be seen in Shiraz complexes. The first type of residential complexes has a large central element and the second type the central element is as multiple and the residential spaces are placed around several cores. These cores are not large and wide as the first type but have the ability to be placed in the category because of the special atmosphere of the organization. The third type is a collection of residential blocks put together as a complex. This type can have two approaches: regular or irregular. In the regular approach the blocks are placed under the laws of geometry, while in the second approach, the placement of blocks do not follow a particular approach. The fifth identified type does not comply with any of the organizations presented above and is mostly a mixture of two or more types and so is named as mixed.
In the complex layout which has been highly received among other types, the advantage can be seen that there is the possibility of ventilation for the block through the four sides, while the made open space does not create any specific boundary for the residents and does not create a sense of ownership in them. Open space will be mostly public. The strip layout which was made of connecting the blocks provides the possibility of skylight and ventilation from two sides and the number of units is more in a block. The open space is mostly as regular streets and is not widespread.
The central layout (environmental) is in accordance with the principles of the traditional central courtyards in Iran. One of the advantages of this method is creating large communal areas such as basketball and football lands and the residents will be deprived of this advantage by dividing the land into smaller pieces. Also in this case, different spaces with different functions can be assigned to families by expanding the uses. One of its disadvantages is that these large spaces require increased costs for their maintenance; while the residents protect the separate lands especially when the buildings are in the use of the groups with their relatives, colleagues or friends. In the design of such areas for residential complexes it is better to use the both methods and obtain a combination of them. It means that the area is divided into a central space for shared activities and the space next to the building is considered for the specific activity of each building and also the neighborhood groups are very effective in the relationships inside the building that provides the semi-private realm for residents. But according to the results obtained in this study, this type is not well received so much. Further studies on the effectiveness of this type can better identify the degree of acceptance or non-acceptance of this type.
In the primary types of Shiraz, two complexes with linear type are seen: one as central and another as mixed. Given that the primary types had a diverse range, it seems that a detailed study about their impacts on human relationships in the construction of residential complexes could help the officials to make decisions more easily. The study, which could be the basis for many subsequent studies attempted to provide an appropriate ground for achieving this goal in a variety of organizations used in the residential complexes.