عنوان مقاله [English]
Nowadays, paying attention to the worn-out urban textures and applying improvement and renovation plans in these textures are of particular importance in promoting the quality of life; Such a way that in recent years, many plans Have been prepared for this purpose. One of these projects is the Land readjustment scheme; This plan is an important tools for land planning that seeks to renovation the worn-out textures by utilizing the social aspects and participation of the residents. The purpose of this study was feasibility of implementing Land readjustment scheme in the worn-out textures of Urmia City. The research method according to the research subject is descriptive-analytical and its purpose is of applied type. Field and library studies were used to collect data and in this regard, 27 indicators were extracted in four physical, economic, legal-managerial and social components. Analytical hierarchy process model (AHP) and Expert Choice, GIS and Spss softwares were used for data analysis. The results showed that in the physical component according to the feasibility map prepared, 41% of the components have a relatively high potential for readjustment. In the economic component, according to the average obtained (2.82), the implementation of the Land readjustment scheme is evaluated medium to the low. The legal-managerial component with a mean of 3.03 is in a good condition to implement the scheme and Finally, in the social component the average obtained (2.45) is lower than the mean which indicates an undesirable condition of this component to use of Land readjustment scheme.
Worn-out textures have undoubtedly been one of the most important challenges facing most cities and especially metropolises in recent decades and are one of the major concerns of urban management. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the modernization of these textures in order to improve urban productivity, reduce the damages caused by earthquakes, to achieve social justice and to deprive the inhabitants of these textures, and to utilize the urban potentials. In this context, land readjustment is one of the executive methods for renovation of worn-out tissues, while avoiding the traditional methods of restoration worn-out tissue, providing a suitable platform for the use of public participation during the renovation process. This approach provides a suitable land for housing and public services such as educational spaces, roads, green spaces, sewer networks and surface water collection systems That are necessary for urban life. Therefore, using this method and relying on the participation of residents can solve problems of worn-out textures such as microlithic parts, Low width of passages, Exhaustion of buildings, lack of proper urban services and so on. In this research, it is attempted to investigate feasibility of implementing of Land readjustment scheme in the worn-out texture of Urmia city and identify the effective factors on the implementation of this plan in the mentioned texture.
The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of research method. Library and survey methods were used for data collection. The statistical population of this study includes all experts in urban planning, architecture and sociology dominating the subject in related universities and organizations as well as residents of the worn-out texture of Urmia. Sampling was done by snowball sampling and 30 people were selected to distribute the questionnaire. The sample of worn-out residents was also selected According to the population of 38154 people, 200 people were selected using Cochran formula. The validity test used is face and content validity and in this regard the validity of the research instrument was confirmed by a number of specialists (university professors). Cronbach's alpha method was used to test the reliability of the questionnaires; Cronbach's alpha coefficient of confidence was 0.814 which indicates high reliability of the instrument. Finally, The data set obtained was analyzed using AHP model and softwares of Expert Choice, GIS and Spss.
To investigate and analyze the realization of land readjustment scheme in terms of physical, first the indices related to this component include 6 indices were extracted and using AHP model and the Delphi method in the form of a survey of 30 urban experts and applying Expert Choice software, Pairwise comparisons between criteria were performed and prioritized. According to the results, the index of "plot area", " quality of building", "building dating back", "width of passages ", "land use" and "land ownership" were ranked 1 to 6, respectively. Determining the final weight of the indices, in order to prepare the feasibility map for realization of land readjustment scheme in the physical dimension, first a layer for each of the indices is prepared in GIS software, then by overlaying the layers and applying their output weights from the AHP model, the physical feasibility map has been achieved. According to the study, over the whole worn-out texture area, approximately 77.4 hectare of the plots of high-potential, 48.7 hectare of medium-potential, 97.6 hectare of low-potential, and 81.9 hectare have very little potential to implement land readjustment.
The feasibility of land readjustment scheme from an economic and legal-managerial point of view was performed using Delphi method and 6 questions in the Likert five-choice scale in the economic component and 7 questions in the Legal-managerial component of Urmia urban management experts. Based on the findings in the economic component, all the indicators have a mean near to the average of 3, and the total average obtained in this component is 2.82 and based on the Likert's five-choice scale is close to the average of 3, so the status of the economic component is evaluated medium to the low. In the legal-managerial component, the findings showed that of the 7 indices evaluated, 2 indices have obtained the mean higher than average 3 and the mean obtained in the other 5 indices was close to average 3. The overall mean of this component is 3.03, which according to the Likert scale is approximately equal to the average of 3, and according to the experts, it is in medium condition to carry out the land readjustment scheme in the worn-out texture of Urmia.
Evaluation of the realization of the land readjustment scheme in the worn-out texture of Urmia City in terms of socially has been done with 7 questions in the form of a questionnaire and distribution among the residents of the mentioned area; The mean obtained in most of the indices is lower than the average of 3 and the calculated total average is 2.45 which is lower than the average of 3 and indicates an undesirable condition of the social component for executing the land readjustment scheme.
In order to prioritize the factors affecting the implementation of land readjustment scheme in the worn-out texture of the city of Urmia and determine their importance, a Delphi questionnaire and method were used and questionnaire data were analyzed by using SPSS software and Friedman test. The findings show that physical and economic components have the most impact on the implementation of the land readjustment scheme and have the first and second rank with average of 3.23 and 2.57, respectively. The social and legal-managerial components are less important than the physical and economic components and rank third and fourth respectively.
The results showed that in the whole worn-out texture area in terms of physical, 25% of the plots high-potential, 16% medium-potential, 32% low-potential, and 27% of plots have very little potential to implement land readjustment. The research findings in three other components showed that the two economic and legal-managerial components were close to average 3 with mean of 2.82 and 3.03 respectively and according to experts, the implementation of the land readjustment scheme is evaluated in terms of the economic component, medium to the low and in terms of the legal-managerial component, medium. The social component has been assessed with a mean of 2.45 lower than the average of 3 and the realization and implementation of the land readjustment scheme is in undesirable condition. In the section on the extent to which each of the mentioned components influence the implementation of the land readjustment plan, The results showed that physical and economic components had the most impact and ranked first and second respectively. The social and legal-managerial components are of less importance and rank third and fourth respectively.
Keywords: Land readjustment scheme, worn-out texture, Urmia City.