شناسایی و تببین عوامل مؤثر بر الگوی مسکن در شهرهای ساحلی (نمونه موردی: شهر بوشهر)

نوع مقاله : مقاله برگرفته از پایان نامه

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه یزد

2 گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

چکیده

مسکن نیاز اساسی انسان و شاخصی برای توسعه انسانی به شمار می رود. مسکن به عنوان تبلور فضایی و تجسم کالبدی فعالیت سکونتی انسان در محیط، خردترین واحد جغرافیایی شمرده می شود. مهم ترین بخش شهر، محل زندگی انسان ها است و سهم عمده ای از سطوح کاربری ها را نیز شامل می شود. خانه اصلی ترین مکانی است که انسان در تمام دوران زندگی اش با آن سروکار دارد. نخستین جهانی است که آدمی در طول حیات خویش در آن سکنی می گزیند و شخصیت می یابد. هم چنان که انسان در حال رشد، تحول و شکوفایی است.هدف از این پژوهش شناسایی و تبیین نقش عوامل اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی و محیطی موثر بر الگوی مسکن شهر بوشهر است. روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی و پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری شامل کل جمعیت شهر بوشهر در سال 1395 برابر298594 نفر است. حجم نمونه که با استفاده از رابطه ی کوکران محاسبه شده برای جمعیت شهر بوشهر 324 نفر مشخص شده است که به دلیل روایی و پایایی بیشتر به 350 نمونه افزایش یافته است که به روش تصادفی انتخاب شده اند. با استفاده از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری ارتباط بین عوامل اقتصادی، فرهنگی، اجتماعی و محیطی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت که از بین عوامل ذکر شده عوامل اقتصادی با بارعاملی(86 درصد) ،عوامل فرهنگی(81 درصد) و اجتماعی(78درصد) و محیطی (75درصد) به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین اثر را بر الگوی مسکن بوشهر نشان می دهد. همچنین نتایج نشان می‌دهد که کلیه عوامل مؤثر بر الگوی مسکن دارای ارتباط مثبت و معنی داری در سطح اطمینان 99 درصدی می باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying and explaining factors affecting the housing pattern in coastal cities(Case study: Bushehr city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • reza mostofiolmamalaki 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Saraei 2
  • younes shakeri 1
1 yazd university
2 Geography, Humanities, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

Housing is a basic human need and an indicator of human development. Housing as the spatial crystallization and physical incarnation of human settlements in the environment is considered the smallest geographic. The most important part of the city is the place of human life, and it also includes a major share of user levels. The house is the main place where human beings deal with all their lifetime. The first is a world in which man dwells in his lifetime and finds personality. As the human is growing, transforming and flourishing. The purpose of this research is to identify and explain the role of economic, social, cultural and environmental factors affecting the housing pattern of Bushehr city. The research method is descriptive-analytical and survey. The statistical population includes the total population of Bushehr city in 1395 equal to 298594 people. The sample size, which is calculated using the Cochran relation for the population of Bushehr, is 324, which has increased to 350 samples, due to its validity and reliability, which have been selected randomly. Using structural equation modeling, the relationship between economic, cultural, social and environmental factors was studied. Among the factors mentioned above, economic factors with a significant effect (86%), cultural factors (81%) and social (78%) and environmental (75%)) Show the highest and the lowest effect on Bushehr housing pattern, respectively. Also, the results show that all of the factors affecting the housing pattern have a positive and significant relationship with a 99% confidence level.
Introduction
For a long time, the need for shelter for mankind has been considered as a slaughter (Boshagh et al., 2012: 2). The issue of housing is one of the most important issues that has attracted human attention from the beginning (Norouzian & Ziyari, 2014: 66). The residential environment is the most important public space in the city, with its facilities and services providing residents with satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Montgomery & Curtis,2006: 4). The importance of housing cannot be overlooked in human health and well-being. Thus, housing provides a secure environment and encourages the presence of people in society and the economy of society (Darabesh, 2011: 20). The role of human and environmental characteristics such as culture, society, economy in the housing pattern of individuals is not rotten (Mazidi and Safarzadeh, 2011: 85). The set of factors suggested suggests a specific pattern for each human being to build housing. One of the main concerns of housing planners is to identify the factors influencing the pattern of human housing that are able to provide the housing needed by the inhabitants according to their individual, social, economic, cultural and environmental conditions. Understanding the factors that can influence the formation of housing patterns can bring home planners and city managers the policy to predict and secure the land demanded by residents for the construction of a custom housing model. The main purpose of this study is to identify and explain the factors affecting the housing pattern in Bushehr.
The following questions and hypotheses are therefore used to conduct the research:
●What are the factors influencing the construction of housing pattern in Bushehr (villa, apartment and residential complex)?
● Is there a significant relationship between socioeconomic factors and Bushehr housing model?
● Do economic factors have the greatest impact on the housing model of Bushehr?
● There is a significant relationship between socio-economic factors and housing pattern in Bushehr.
● Economic factors have the greatest impact on the housing pattern of Bushehr.
 Methodology
The purpose of this study is practical and descriptive-analytical. Statistical data were extracted from library and field methods. The main indicators of the study include the economic, social, cultural and environmental dimensions of housing, which comprises a total of 38 components that have been investigated and explained using structural equation modeling, Bushehr housing model. The statistical population includes 85523 household heads of households in Bushehr in 2016. The sample size determined using the Cochran formula equals 350 households. Cronbach's alpha statistic (Table 1) was used to measure internal consistency of the items.
Table (1) Cronbach's alpha value observed





Factor


Number of Variables


Alpha Value




Social


15


87/0




Economic


9


89/0




Cultural


6


83/0




Environmental


7


76/0





 
Results and discussion
In the first step, respondents were classified by sex distribution.
 
 
Factors Affecting Housing Pattern in Bushehr
In order to study the factors affecting the housing pattern of land users in Bushehr ، a second-order model has been used.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Figure 1: Factors and variables affecting the housing model of Bushehr
 
 
 
The results of second order model of Bushehr city housing model show that economic factor has the highest and environmental factor has the least role in Bushehr land users housing model. The results of Table (2) show that there is no significant difference between the theoretical model and the experimental model and the model fit indices show good fit of the model. The CMIN / DF value is 1.557 which is a number between 1 and 3 indicating a good fit to the model as well as a RMSEA value of less than 0.08 indicating that the research data have been able to confirm the overall model well. Reach.
Table (2): Main fitting indices of Bushehr housing model





Index


scores




Chi-square


318/385




DF


245




CMIN/DF


573/1




PGFI


627/0




NFI


967/0




IFI


876/0




TLI


856/0




CFI


872/0




PRATIO


888/0




PNFI


639/0




PCFI


774/0




RMSEA


076/0





 
Conclusion
Housing is the smallest institution in which human beings are born, grow and prosper. Bystudying different factors in the formation of housing model in Bushehr, it was concluded that all economic, social, cultural and environmental factors are influential in Bushehr's housing pattern, but the highest impact was related to economic factor with 86% factor loadings and lowest, respectively. The impact is related to the environmental factor with a factor load of 75%. Also in the model there is a positive and significant relationship between the mentioned factors and the housing patterns of Bushehr at the level of 0.99 and the empirical data support the conceptual and theoretical model overall. Generally, three patterns of villas, apartments and residential complexes were identified by studying the patterns of housing construction in Bushehr. In 7,4,5,6 areas of Bushehr most of the housing patterns are due to economic factors such as income and high land prices and also in 1,8,9 areas due to the old texture of Bushehr and urban planning rules. It, as well as the migration of more immigrants to the 9th District, reflects a tendency to construct a model of villas because of the low land prices and the socio-cultural and economic characteristics.
Keywords: Housing, Housing Pattern, Economic Factors, Coastal City, Bushehr.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • housing
  • housing pattern
  • economic factors
  • coastal city
  • Bushehr
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