عنوان مقاله [English]
Neighborhoods have historically been the residence place of different ethnic, racial, religious, and business owners in Iranian cities, which has played a significant role in the development of Iranian cities (Latifi and Chabok, 2011: 6).
Following the developments in contemporary urban contexts and replacing new urban contexts with old ones, the role and position of urban neighborhoods has weakened and instability has increased in the context of urban neighborhoods (Azizi, 2006: 36). Sustainable development seeks answers to problems as an approach in all dimensions. In the meantime, neo-urbanism, as a new approach to urban engineering, considers a complete spectrum of city planning and architecture response to unstable neighborhoods (Hajipour, Ketabchi, 2012: 83).
Consequences of neglecting the context of residential neighborhoods will increase instability in these contexts. In the meantime, density is one of the most important and fundamental issues in urban planning and tools for conducting and controlling urban development. Building density can be used as a tool to achieve the goals, principles, and criteria of desirable and sustainable urban development (Azizi, 2003: 6). Therefore, urban planners are trying to create the necessary conditions for sustainable development of the city by optimally determining and distributing the building density (Ramezani, 2009: 3).
The study area is Shahid Hashemi Nejad neighborhood of Mashhad whose density is not appropriate due to the worn-out body and the divergence of population resulting from the physical and social conditions of the neighborhood. Despite the increasing trend of building density in this area, the living population is on a downward trend, which is due to the diminishing role of housing and the increasing role of residential, commercial, and cultural activities. Therefore, there search objective, questions, and hypotheses are:
- Determining the dimensions and indicators affecting the building density according to the neo-urbanism approach in Shahid Hashemi Nejad Neighborhood
- Presentation of building density model according to neo-urbanism approach in Shahid Hashemi Nejad neighborhood
- How is the sustainable neighborhoods model based on the principles of neo-urbanism in the study area?
- It seems that Shahid Hashemi Nejad neighborhood does not have optimal and sustainable density in the current situation.
- It seems that there is no positive relationship between density and stability in Shahid Hashemi Nejad neighborhood.
Materials and Methods:
The research method in this study is descriptive-analytical and correlational. Indicators are collected through exploratory theoretical foundations in both documentary and field formats and their relationships are analyzed and measured. The required information from the study area is obtained using a questionnaire. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were assessed and its reliability is evaluated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The sample size is calculated using Cochran formula as much as 343 people. The weights of the indicators were also obtained by the ANP method with questions from 15 academic experts.
Discussion and Results:
Factors affecting building density include physical-environmental, socio-cultural, and economic factors, which are the causes that building density determines in different parts of the city.
Weighing criteria and indicators using ANP method
In the present research, 6 clusters and 24 subgroups were analyzed in the overall design of the ANP image model. The weighting of criteria and indicators is based on the ANP model's weight spectrum.
The final indicators after localizing the indicators from documentary studies are as follows:
Table 1- Weighting the criteria and indicators
Physical - environmental
Access to services
Access to training centers
Access to medical care
Access to health centers
Access to cultural centers
Access to religious centers
Access to sports centers
Local access network
International access network
Access to the bus station
Access to the subway station
Physical - environmental
Observance of privacy
Number of floors
Type of Materials
Type of structure
Roadway traffic density
Pedestrian traffic density
(Resource: Authors, 2019)
The process of combining criteria and indicators
The final and integrated zoning map pf the building density is achieved by overlapping all layers of criteria and indicators in the GIS environment.
Figure 1. Proposed building density map based on the overlapping of all layers (Drawing: Authors)
Conclusion and Recommendations:
- The purpose of this research was to pursue the indicators affecting the building density based on the Neo-urbanism approach and criteria. Moreover, the variables affecting the building density in Shahid Hashemi Nejad Neighborhood (Pachenar) of Mashhad were also evaluated based on the influential approach to the mentioned index in the form of three general economic, socio-cultural, physical-environmental factors.
- Concerning the effect of various factors on the distribution of building density, demographic index had the highest significance coefficient for the integration of indictors with a weight factor as much as 0.43 from 1, which had the most influence on the distribution of building density in the study area.
- The result of the final integration of all layers indicate that the main street margins and neighborhood boundaries of the study are the best location for the highest building density (high and very high) and the inner parts of the neighborhood are suitable for the lowest building density.
- Developing specific criteria to prevent increase or decrease in building density in different parts of the neighborhood
- Restriction on sale of surplus building density for buildings that are in the low density range
- Strengthening the service distribution system at the neighborhood level
- Strengthening pedestrian network at the neighborhood level
- Creating open and green spaces due to the lack of it at the neighborhood level and preventing damage caused by environmental pollution
- Encourage the construction of complexes within the proposed high density building zones
- Controlling high-rise construction at the neighborhood level
Keywords: Sustainable neighborhood, Neo-urbanism, Building density, ANP
Steuteville, R, (2004): The New Urbanism: An alternative to modern, automobile-oriented planning development