عنوان مقاله [English]
With the advent of the industrial revolution and the changing attitudes and exploits of nature, there has been a rift between urban spaces and natural systems. This has led to the formation of ghostly urban spaces that have nothing to do with the morals, needs, and inherent dependencies of nature on nature. The myriad problems caused by this disruption have become one of the major concerns of urban planners. In this regard, biophilic approach as a new and holistic approach based on nature-based approach in urban spaces, by applying environmental indicators, citizenship and management, seeks urban ecological sustainability. The purpose of this study is to localize the global biophilic indices in the 9th and 10th districts of Tehran metropolitan, while trying to analyze the internal relationships between these indices, to present a model of biophilic city. The research population consists of a group of experts and experts in the fields of geography and urban planning, environment and urban planning. The research method is descriptive-analytical. Using structural equation modeling and pls software, a model is presented to explain and explain the relationships between the biophilic indigenous indices of the city and how the model variables are linked. The results show that biophilic entities and organizations index with path coefficient (5.330), biophilic infrastructure and conditions with path coefficient (4.314), biophilic attitudes and knowledge with path coefficient (3.423) and finally Biophilic activities with path coefficient (2.109) have the most influence on biophilic pattern design, respectively. Based on these results, the principles of moving towards biophilic can be provided by institutions and organizations, managers' policies for nature conservation, formulation and monitoring of biophilic model laws, partnerships, and partnerships. The grassroots activist pointed out the changing attitudes of citizens towards environmental issues, environmental education and more.
Keywords: biophilic city, pls software, Tehran 9th and 10th metropolitan areas.
The world is passing through the age of urban society with an increasing trend. This growing trend, in spite of positive changes in human society, many environmental issues including climate change, environmental pollution, loss of agricultural productivity, disruption of urban and natural space, degradation and habitat loss. Natural causes disruption of hydrological systems and the risk of mental illness and health. These issues are more noticeable in the city of Tehran due to the expansion of urbanization, especially in areas 9 and 10, due to the high density and worn-out textures and the lack of green and open space, destruction and alteration of green land uses. Therefore, these areas face a high level of environmental problems. To date, approaches have been proposed to address these problems, and the biophilic approach plays an important role in these discussions. This approach of connecting urban space with nature is a priority on a daily and continuous basis and plays a major role in environmental sustainability. Considering the importance of biophilic approach in conservation and development of natural elements in urban planning and design, the present study attempts to localize biophilic indices to provide a model of biophilic city. In this regard, it seeks to answer the following questions: - What are the characteristics and indices of the native pattern of biophilic city in Tehran metropolis? How to get the right biophilic city pattern?
The present study is a descriptive-analytic one and it is applied in terms of purpose. Data collection was done through documentary-library and field research using questionnaire. The statistical population of this study consisted of 20 experts from the academic community who were selected by snowball sampling. In the first step, after providing the global indicators of biophilic for localization and adaptation to native conditions, experts were provided. After saturation of experts' opinion, these indices were selected as the final indices in 4 dimensions and 27 indices. Then, these indices were distributed among the statistical population in the form of a questionnaire with Likert spectrum. Face validity was used to assess the validity of the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for reliability. The obtained coefficient of alpha is 0.816 which indicates high internal consistency and reliability.
The data analysis method was used by structural equation modeling and pls software.
Results and discussion
In the Findings section the structural equation model and pls software are used. To do this, first the present and explicit variables of the research were identified (4 main dimensions as hidden variables and 27 indigenous indicators of explicit variables) and then the original model and model of the research were drawn. In this model, based on the opinions of experts, institutions and organizations influence the infrastructure and conditions, knowledge and attitudes and activities of biophilic. Infrastructure and conditions also affect knowledge, attitude, and activities. Activities also influence attitudes and awareness. The index of knowledge and attitudes do not affect any of the other indicators. After drawing the model, the fit of the indices obtained from the model estimation was evaluated in two parts: evaluation of the measurement model and structural model evaluation. Cronbach's alpha criteria, convergent and divergent validity, and R2 determination coefficient were used in the modeling section, and Cronbach's alpha for all dimensions was greater than 0.7, indicating acceptable reliability. The composite reliability criterion was more than 0.7 for all dimensions and acceptable and significant. Also, the mean of the extracted variance in convergent validity was higher than 0.5 for all indices. Finally, the final model of the structural model was plotted in the path coefficient and found that the index of institutions with 5.330, infrastructure with 4.314, attitudes with 3.423 and activities with 2.109 had the most impact on biophilic respectively.
Believing that each city has the potential and potential to become a biophilic city, future cities need to be designed and managed so that better meaningful communication can be established between man and nature. In the present study, with such an approach, localization and content relationships between the indices were investigated while localizing the biophilic city indices. The results showed that the dimensions of institutions and organizations with a factor of 14.892 influenced the attitudes and knowledge with a factor of 6.654, and a factor of 1.396 with a biophilic activity index and finally with a factor of 5.330 influenced the biophilic realization. The second important and influential dimension of biophilic is infrastructure and conditions. According to the research experts, this dimension has an impact on activities with a factor of 19.286, attitudes and knowledge with a factor of 4.513 and finally with an impact factor of 4.314 on the realization of the biophilic city. Another dimension examined in this study is biophilic attitudes and awareness. This is after all impressive while not affecting any of them and is the only route affecting the biophilic city, which ranks third with a factor of 3.423. The fourth dimension affecting the biophilic city is devoted to biophilic activities. According to experts, this index has an effect on attitude and knowledge index of 4.914 and biophilic index of 2.109 and this relationship is significant and acceptable. The results of the model show that the realization of a biophilic city requires first and foremost the companionship of government agencies. Because the main trustees are city managers, officials and planners who can play a crucial role in the development of programs and plans by formulating, preparing and enforcing the rules and regulations, as well as having the credit and ... Provide the need for other indicators to be realized.