تحلیلی بر چگونگی و دلایل اقامت مهاجرین روستایی وارد شده به شهر در بدو ورود و تحرک سکونتی آنها در مراحل بعد از سکونت اولیه (مطالعه موردی: بجنورد)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری

2 عضو هیات علمی گروه جغرافیای دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری

3 استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری

چکیده

امروزه موضوع مهاجرت و تحرک سکونتی در نواحی مختلف شهر به دلیل رابطه‌ی اجتناب‌ناپذیر علت و معلولی بین مهاجرت‌های درون شهری و ساختار اجتماعی ـ فضایی شهر ، به ویژه در تحلیل اکولوژی اجتماعی شهرها مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف تحلیل چگونگی و دلایل اقامت مهاجرین روستایی در بدو ورود به شهر بجنورد و تحرک سکونتی آنها در مراحل بعد از سکونت اولیه انجام شده است. روش تحقیق توصیفی - تحلیلی و داده های مورد نیاز از طریق پیمایشی( پرسشنامه ) گردآوری شده است. نمونه ها به روش نمونه گیری احتمالی طبقه بندی شده انتخاب شده اند.حجم نمونه از طریق فرمول کوکران 384 نفر تعیین شده است. واحد تحقیق خانوار می باشد، از این رو نمونه ها از بین سرپرستان خانوارها انتخاب شده اند. داده های گردآوری شده با استفاده از روشهای آماری توصیفی و آزمون های آمار استنباطی از جمله آزمون کای اسکوئر و با کمک نرم افزار SPSS مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که از نظر سکونت اولیه، 67.5 درصد از این افراد در بدو ورود در بافت بیرونی و از لحاظ جهات جغرافیایی 37.8 درصد در شمال شرق و 29.6 درصد در قسمت جنوب غرب شهرسکونت اختیار کرده اند. در رابطه با علت سکونت در بدو ورود ، اکثر مهاجران وارد شده یعنی 43.8 درصد پاسخگویان ارزان بودن قیمت یا اجاره مسکن را بعنوان علت اصلی انتخاب این مناطق برای سکونت خود ذکر کرده اند. تحرک سکونتی مهاجرین در مراحل بعد از سکونت اولیه عمدتا در داخل مناطق درآمدی مشابه انجام شده است. یعنی بهبود وضعیت مالی اکثر مهاجرین روستایی در حدی نبوده است که باعث تحرک سکونتی آنها از محله سکونت اولیه به مناطق با درآمد بالاتر صورت گرفته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An analysis of the How and reasons for the residence of the rural migrants arrived at the beginning of the arrival in city and their residential mobility on after primary stages (Case study: Bojnourd)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Najafi 1
  • Yaghoub Zanganeh 2
  • Mohammad Salmani Moghaddam 3
1 MA., Geography and Urban Planning Department, Hakim Sabzevari University
2 Assistant Professor, Human Geography Department ,Hakim Sabzevari University
3 Assistant Professor, Geography and Urban and Rural Planning , Hakim Sabzevari University,
چکیده [English]

Today, the issue of residential mobility in different parts of the city has been considered due to the inevitable cause and effect relationship between urban migration and the socio-spatial structure of the city, especially in the analysis of the social ecology of cities.The aim of current research is An analysis of the How and reasons for the residence of the rural migrants arrived at the beginning of the arrival in Bojnourd and their Residential Mobility in the later stages of initial stay. The type of research method is a descriptive- analytical method where the required data are collected through a survey (questionnaire). The samples are chosen by a categorized probabilic sampling method. The sample size is 384 people that were determined by the Cochran Test. The research unit was household, so samples were selected from household heads. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests such as chi-square test and SPSS software.The research findings show that in terms of primary residence, 67.5 percent of these people are settled in outer texture of entering, 37.8 percent in the northeast, and 29.6 percent in the southwest of city of residence.Regarding the reason for settling on arrival, the majority of entered immigrants, i.e. 43.8 percent of respondents, mentioned that the cheaper prices or rental housing is the main reason to choose these areas for their residence. Residential mobility in the after of primary residence is mainly carried out within similar income areas .This means that the financial situation of most rural migrants has not improved to the extent that they have moved from their primary residence to higher-income areas.
 
Introduction: Today, the issue of both migration and residential mobility has been paid more attention in different parts of the city due to the inevitable cause and effect relationship between urban migration and the socio-spatial structure of the city, especially in the analysis of urban social ecology. In this matter, the arrival of rural immigrants along with their initial residence on the outskirts of the city, and their post-residence mobility have a significant impact to form some aspects such as the suburban areas, the transformation of the social areas, and the social ecology of the city. The selection of out-of-town areas by immigrants often determines some irregular expansion of the city due to a lack of sufficient financial resources to looking for inexpensive housing and land. The immigrants who initially reside in the suburbs of the city without first having legal facilities and permits to build, after a while, they attempt to obtain some facilities as a citizen within the city's legal limits.
In this regard, Bojnourd city, especially after the formation of North Khorasan province in 2004 and its promotion to the center of the province, has become a popular attraction in the region, in which the migration process from the villages and other cities of the province have noticeably intensified. The initial residence of most of these immigrants in the suburbs has caused to form informal residences around the city. Therefore, the current research is conducted to explore the effective causes and motivations to choose a residence upon arrival in the city, as well as their relocation to the next stages of residence in the mentioned city.
Methodology: The research method is performed in a descriptive-analytical way, where the required data is gathered through a survey (questionnaire). To do so, the stratified random sampling method was employed. As such, Bojnourd is first divided into three physical regions (including central, middle and outer contexts). Moreover, the city has also been divided into four main directions of northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest in another subdivision to determine the geographical directions of the residences of the immigrants. Then, the number and percentage of immigrants entering each of these areas were specified and then the obtained results were analyzed by some descriptive and inferential statistical methods using SPSS software. Here, Cochran’s formula 384 calculates the minimum sample size. To be sure, the sample size has been increased to 408 individuals. It should be noted that as the sample was household survey, the samples were chosen from the heads of household.
Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicated that about 67.5% of those immigrants who arrived at the first arrival chose the exterior texture for their initial place of residence, out of the three available (central, middle and outer) textures. In terms of geographic location, 37.8 percent of immigrants reside at the northwest, whereas 29.6 percent at the southwest, so that two geographies generally contain 67.4 percent. Among the factors of the residential mobility after initial residence, 31% of households mentioned the reason for their relocation in order to improve their financial status. After this, the factor in getting closer to relatives was 20.7% of the major contributors to migration. It should be mentioned that among the initial residence selection factors upon arrival, this mentioned factor also had a relatively significant percentage (27.8%). In addition to two factors mentioned above, other factors such as: deterioration of home and previous residence, the lack of utilities and services, the lack of social, economic and cultural inequality, as well as the reduced income levels, have been effective to relocate the families. Ultimately, in some cases, however, partial relocation of households from the higher income areas to the lower income areas has also occurred, which could be interpreted due to a decline in household income, job losses, and employment in lower-income jobs. This implies to 2.24 percent of households relocation from northwestern middle-income to lower-income northwest.
Conclusion: The initial residence of immigrants in the suburbs is a well-known issue. This issue can be described due to the fact that the rural migrants are often employed in informal jobs at the time of migration while they do not have sufficient financial resources. As land and rent-prices in suburban areas are often lower than in other areas, immigrants are more probably to live in these mentioned areas. Moreover, they more prefer to settle near their relatives and acquaintances, due to the lack of awareness of the living conditions in the city and the need for help and guidance from other people, which will gradually bring to aggregate the immigrants together from rural along outskirts of the cities.
Often, immigrants are often better off and more stable in terms of working and income conditions after residing in the chosen city. This increases their ability to live better in the residential neighborhoods and homes. Of course, the results of this paper on the relocation of immigrants between the income areas show that most of the immigrants have relocated within the same income area. In other words, the financial situation of most rural immigrants has not improved enough to relocate them from their initial residence to higher-income areas.
      The results of the study confirmed that a large proportion of rural immigrants settled in Bojnourd on the outskirts and slums of the northwest and southeast of the city. This reflects the fact that these areas have the potential for indiscriminate physical development as well as the formation of informal residences. As a result, it is suggested that urban management bodies, especially the municipality, should prevent the formation and expansion of such residences in two mentioned areas using urban land use monitoring implementations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Migration"
  • "Residential Mobility"
  • "intra -urban Migration"
  • "Bojnourd"
1. Aliu, R.(2019). Unpacking the dynamics of intra-urban residential mobility in Nigerian cities: Analysis of low-income families in Ojo Lagos, Cities, Volume 85, February 2019, Pages 63-71,doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2018.12.005.
2. Azizi, M. Mehdi, Sima Yarmohammadi (2014), The Impact of New Country Divisions on the Urban Sprawl (Case Study: Bojnourd City), Journal of Fine Arts, Architecture and Design, Volume 19, Number 2, pages 116-103.
3. Amanpour, S., Amiri Fahliani, M. (2016). An Analysis of the Conflict Problems of Migrants in Two Rural and Urban Communities: A Case Study of Rural Migrants in Nourabad, Fars, Journal of Local Development (Rural-Urban), Volume 7, Number Two.
4. Baik Mohammadi, H., Mokhtari Malekabadi, R.(2003). A Geographical Analysis on the Process of Migration in Khuzestan Province, Journal of Geography and Development, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 14-31.
5. Bogue, D. J. (1973). A Methodological Study of Migration and Labor Mobility in Michigan and Ohio in 1947. Donald.
6. Brazil,N.,Clark,W. A.V.(2017). Residential mobility and dynamic neighborhood change during the transition to adulthood, Advances in Life Course Research, Volume 33, Pages 1-10,doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2017.06.001.
7. Castello, V.F. (1989). Urbanization in the Middle East, Translated by Parviz Piran, First Edition, Ney Publishing.
8. Claude, Sh. (1993). Urban Dynamics or the Dynamics of Cities; Translated by Asghar Nazarian, Astan Quds Publications, Mashhad.
9. Ding, L.,Hwang,J.Divringi, E.(2016). Gentrification and residential mobility in Philadelphia, Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol 61, November 2016, Pages 38-51, doi.org/10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2016.09.004.
10. Eddie Chi Man Huib, Si Ming Lia, Francis Kwan Wah Wongb, Zheng Yia, Ka Hung Yu (2012), Ethnicity, cultural disparity and residential mobility: Empirical analysis of Hong Kong, Habitat International, No 49, pp 45-55.
11. Feijten, P., van Ham, M.(2007). Residential mobility and migration of the divorced and separated, Demographic Research, Vol 17, pp 623-654, DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2007 .17.21. 
12. Gagler, J., Alan, G. (1996). Cities, Poverty and Development: Urbanization in the Third World, translated by Parviz Karimi Naseri, Municipality of Tehran.
13. Gbakeji and Rilwani (2009); Resident socioEconomic characteristics and the Residental Mobility in an urban space: the example of warri metropolis delta state, Nigeria; Journal of Human Ecology, 27 (1).
14. Iran Statistical Center (2016). Statistical Yearbook of North Khorasan Province.
15. Irandust, K., Buchani, M.H., Tavallayi, R.(2014). Analysis of Transformational of the Internal Migration Pattern with Emphasis on Intra- urban Migration, Journal of Urban Studies, Issue 6.
16. Knox, Poul (1982); Urban social Geography an introduction; Longman scientific and
technical New, Yourk.
17. Lotfi, S., Aghamiri, S.R.(2008). Factors Affecting the Physical Growth of Saqez City (with Emphasis on Role of Rural Migration), First International Conference on Traditional Zagros Settlements.
18. Miralayi, M.R., Mohammadi, M., Sameti, M.(2019). Housing Selection with Emphasis on Demographic Characteristics of Owner-Owned Households Using Experimental Selection Test Method in Isfahan, Journal of Urban Research and Planning, Vol. 10, No. 37, pp. 97- 112.
19. Pacione M.(2005);Urban geography, a global perspective second edition, Routledge ,New York, N.P:666.
20. Pourmohammadi, M.R., Rustaei, Sh., Asadi, A.(2014). An Analysis of Social Desirability and its Impact on Housing Selection (Case Study: Neighborhoods with High-Residential Urban Development in Zanjan), Journal of Urban Research and Planning, Vol. 5, No. Seventeenth, pp.
21. Robson, B. J. (1975). Urban social areas,Clarendon press, oxford.
22. Sadr Mousavi, M., Pourmohammadi, M.R., Mozaffari, D. (2016). Investigating and Analyzing the Role of Rural Migration in Creating the Informal Sector (Case Study: Tabriz Metropolitan), Journal of Urban Research and Planning, 7th Year, No.25, pp. 18 -1.
23. Safaeipour, M., Amanpour, S., Bassamnia, Z. (2011). Analysis and investigation of the Role of Migration in Physical-Spatial Development of Yasuj (1966-2006), New Attitudes in Human Geography, Vol. Third, NO.4, pp 145-158. 
24. Saghapour, T., Moridpour, S.(2019). The role of neighbourhoods accessibility in residential mobility, Cities,Vol 85, PP 63-71.
25. Samwel Alananga Sanga (2015). Intra-urban residential mobility and tenants' workplace choices in Kinondoni municipality, Habitat International, No 49, pp 45-55.
26. Shakoui, H. (2010). Social Geography of Cities: Social Ecology of the City, University Jihad Publications, Tehran.
27. Vorel, J., Franke, D. Šilha, M.(2015). Behavioral approach to modeling residential mobility in the Prague metropolitan region, Smart Cities Symposium Prague 2015, DOI10.1109/SCSP.2015.7181552.
28. Weiping, w. (2006). Migrant intra-urban Residential Mobility in urban China.
Housing studies, vol, 21, No. 5, 745-765.
29. Zanganeh, Y., Samiipour, D.(2012). Migration, Residential Mobility, and Social-Spatial Construction in Sabzevar, Journal of Urban and Regional Studies and Research, Volume 12,