عنوان مقاله [English]
Considering the tourism potential of Tabriz metropolis, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the economic effects of Tabriz metropolitan tourism in order to minimize its negative impacts. The research is descriptive-analytic, in terms of purpose, applied, and in relation to the method of data collection, library and field methods (questionnaire) were collected. The population consisted of all the citizens of Tabriz metropolitan area in 2019 who were randomly interviewed according to the Cochran formula of 384 persons. Content validity was used to measure the validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to evaluate the research variables and reliability of the questions was estimated at 0.81. After field studies, descriptive statistical methods including frequency distribution, tables, and inferential statistics were used to collect data and analyze data. The software used is SPSS statistical software. The results show that citizens have appreciated the positive effects of tourism above the Likert spectrum. Comparing the variables related to the positive economic impacts of tourism, employment and income generation with 4.15% had the most positive effect and the improvement of transport system and infrastructure with 3.27 had the least positive effect. Also, considering the variables related to the negative economic impacts of inflation and rising prices by 4.05%, the highest negative impact and unemployment increase by 2.3% had the least negative impact.
Key words: Tourism Industry, Urban Tourism, Economic Impacts, Tabriz Metropolis
Today, tourism is regarded as one of the foremost growing activities in the world and a means of raising the national income of countries. The industry is one of the fastest growing industries of the 20th century and is often used as a key or key to economic growth, both in developed and developing countries. Tabriz metropolis, as part of Iran's vast and beautiful body, has long been a tourist attraction with its natural and cultural richness. For this purpose, considering the tourism potential of Tabriz metropolis, the positive and negative economic impacts of tourism have been investigated from the perspective of the citizens in this city and the necessary suggestions for tourism development in terms of economic dynamics are presented. Thus, the main research questions are:1) Can tourism in Tabriz have positive effects?2) What are the positive effects of tourism in Tabriz metropolis?3) Does it have a negative impact if it has positive effects?4) What are the negative effects of tourism in Tabriz metropolis?According to the research questions, the hypotheses are presented as:1) Tourism in Tabriz can be effective in creating jobs and improving job opportunities and increasing purchasing power.2) Tourism in the city of Tabriz leads to increased inflation and its consequences.
The present study uses the "descriptive-analytical method" and the "documentary" method for examining the previous effects and changes. In terms of purpose it is an applied type, the basis of the study is based on field studies (completing the questionnaire); The positive and negative economic effects included 13 five-question closed-ended questions related to the research topic.Cochran sampling method with 95% confidence level and 5% error probability was used to estimate the statistical sample. The population of Tabriz city was 9 persons in 2019. The statistical sample was 384 persons using Cochran sampling method. The sampling method for accessing the samples is random sampling. Content validity was used to measure the validity and after confirming the content. Also, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to evaluate the research variables and the reliability of the questions, which was always more than 0.7 with a value of 0.81. After field studies, descriptive statistical methods including frequency distribution, tables, and inferential statistics were used for data collection and data analysis. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis.
According to field studies, 54.95% of the respondents are men and 45.05% are women. According to the age group, the highest number of respondents was in the age group of 45-35 years The lowest number was in the age group of 65 and over. According to the activity status classification, the highest activity was in employee groups, freelance occupations and retirees are in the lowest education level and illiterate in the lowest and in the bachelor level, respectively.
From the citizens' point of view, the positive effects of tourism are high. Comparing the variables related to the positive economic impacts of tourism, employment and income creation had the most positive impact and improved transportation and infrastructure systems. It has the least positive effect. From the citizens' point of view, tourism in Tabriz metropolitan area has negative economic effects too. Comparing the variables related to the negative economic impacts of inflation, inflation and price increase have the highest negative impact and unemployment increase has the least negative impact.
Although there are many historical sites, cultural heritage sites and museums in Tabriz metropolitan area, the impact of these factors on tourism economic indices cannot be investigated separately. Because a combination of these factors simultaneously affects the attraction of foreign tourists. According to field research, the majority of respondents were male and mainly in the age group 35-45 . In terms of educational status, the respondents mainly have a university degree, especially a bachelor's degree . According to the respondents' activity status, most of the activities were in the employee , freelance and retirement groups, respectively. To test the hypotheses, a single-domain T-test was used that most citizens, despite the negative effects of tourism on the economy of Tabriz (such as inflation and rising prices, rising costs of road maintenance and transportation systems, etc.) impact of tourism. Tabriz metropolitan area has been evaluated as positive and the results of this study are in line with the results of researchers who have done studies in this field and are included in the research background. Consistent with the findings of this study, Alrojafah et al., Who perceived the positive economic effects of urban tourism more than the negative effects of urban tourism, found that the economic effects of tourism in this study were 3.57% positive and 3.153% negative. also in line with research by Teimouri et al., Who found that tourism in the city of Tabriz increases income, employment and unemployment, so that in this study employment creation and income generation were 4.15%. The highest positive impact and the reduction of unemployment was 2.3% with the lowest negative impact.