مدل متناسب حکمروایی خوب شهری برای کلانشهرهای کشور و تحلیل یکپارچه وضعیت فعلی (مورد مطالعه : مشهد)

نوع مقاله : مقاله برگرفته از پایان نامه

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 گروه مدیریت دولتی دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در کشورهای پیشرفته برای حل مشکلات مدیریت شهری به خصوص در کلانشهرها مدیریت شهری بر مبنای نظریه حکمروایی خوب شهری میباشد. مدل های مختلف جهانی و منطقه ای برای حکمروایی خوب شهری تعریف شده است و هر یک دارای ابعاد و مولفه های مختلفی میباشد. برای استقرار حکمروایی خوب شهری در کلانشهرهای کشور لازم است مدل بومی حکمروایی شهری برای هر شهر به صورت مجزا تهیه شود. هدف تحقیق این است که اولا الگوی متناسب حکمروایی خوب شهری برای کلانشهرهای کشور را در قالب مولفه ها، ابعاد و معیارهای متناسب به صورت موزون احصاء کرده و ثانیا با انجام تحلیل یکپارچه رئوس راهبردهای حرکت به سمت حکمروایی خوب شهری را به دست آورد. در این تحقیق الگوهای مختلف حکمروایی شهری در سطح بین المللی بررسی شده و ابعاد و مولفه های آنها احصاء شده و به صورت تجمیع یافته با توجه به مشابهت ها و موضوعات آنها ارائه شده است. سپس برای بومی سازی مدل و متناسب سازی آن با شرایط کلانشهرهای کشور از نظرات خبرگان به صورت پنل دلفی استفاده شد. مورد مطالعه این تحقیق شهر مشهد بود و 42 نفر از منتخبان خبرگان هفت ذینفع و ذینفوذ اصلی شهر مشهد به عنوان خبرگان و پنل دلفی از طریق نمونه گیری قضاوتی و گلوله برفی انتخاب شده و در پنل دلفی شرکت کرده و ابعاد و معیارهای حکمروایی خوب شهری را نمره دهی نمودند و بعضی موارد را نیز به آنها افزوده یا حذف کردند. سپس با توجه به ابعاد و معیارهای نهایی ، وضعیت فعلی کلانشهر مشهد را نمره دهی و نقاط قوت و ضعف را مشخص کردند. در نهایت الگوی بومی و متناسب حکمروایی خوب شهری برای شهر مشهد بر اساس مولفه ها، ابعاد و معیارها با وزن هریک از آنها مشخص شد، ارزیابی وضعیت فعلی مشهد بر مبنای این الگو با نمره به مولفه ها، ابعاد و معیارها انجام شد و راهکارهای حرکت از وضعیت فعلی به سوی چشم انداز حکمروایی خوب شهری تعیین گردید. برای اعتبار سنجی نتایج حاصله و ارائه راهکارهای اجرایی دو جلسه فوکوس گروپ با خبرگان منتخب نماینده طیف های مختلف فوق برگزار و نتایج در فوکوس گروپ تایید شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developing the appropriate good urban governance model for metropolises of Iran and the integrated analysis of current situation (Case study: Mashhad)

نویسندگان [English]

  • gholamreza kazemian 1
  • ehsan barari 2
  • Fattah Sharif Zadeh 2
  • Vajhollah Ghorbanizadeh 2
1 معاون آموزشی دانشکده حسابداری و مدیریت
2 Faculty of management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba'I University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In advanced countries, urban management is based on the theory of good urban governance to solve urban management problems, especially in metropolises. Various global and regional models have been defined for good urban governance and each has different dimensions and components. In order to establish good urban governance in the metropolises of the country, it is necessary to develop an indigenous model of urban governance for each city separately. The purpose of the research is to firstly outline the proportional model of good urban governance for metropolitan areas in terms of appropriate components, dimensions, and criteria, and secondly, by integrating an outline analysis to obtain strategies for moving towards good urban governance. In this research, different patterns of urban governance at the international level have been studied and their dimensions and components have been summarized and presented in terms of their similarities and themes. Delphi panel experts' opinions were then used to localize the model and adjust it to the metropolitan conditions of the country. The study was conducted in Mashhad city and 42 selected experts from seven stakeholders and main stakeholders of Mashhad were selected as experts and Delphi Panel through Judicial and Snowball Sampling and participated in Delphi Panel and met the dimensions and criteria of good urban governance scored and added or removed some items. Then according to the final dimensions and criteria, the current status of Mashhad metropolitan area was evaluated and the strengths and weaknesses were determined. Finally, a good and appropriate model of good urban governance for the city of Mashhad was determined based on the components, dimensions and criteria with each weight, evaluation of the current status of Mashhad based on this model with a score on the components, dimensions and criteria was carried out and the traffic guidelines from the current situation towards the prospect of good urban governance. To validate the results and provide executive solutions, two focus group meetings were held with the selected experts representing the above spectrum and the results were confirmed in Focus Group.
Extended Abstract
Introduction:
Urban management in metropolitan areas of the country now faces many complex and multifaceted problems, but with a top-down and centralized urban management model based on the classical and new public management paradigms it is practically inadequate to address them. Also, in the digital revolutionary space of information technology and social networks, people's expectations of urban management have risen sharply due to insufficient attention to the opinions and capabilities and the willingness of public and private and public sectors to participate in decision making and implementation. In the urban management environment, as well as insufficient attention to vulnerable sections of society such as the suburbs, women, the disabled, etc., public dissatisfaction with the urban management complex has also increased. New urban management systems provide approaches to address these challenges and challenges in urban life. The approach that has become the dominant analytical model of urban management in recent decades has been the approach of good urban governance. Good urban governance represents an approach that city management is not solely in the hands of the state and the government, but rather in a collaborative process between the government, the private sector, and the public institutions of decision making and implementation for the city. In fact, the dominant global paradigm for solving these problems is the model of urban participatory management with the role of all the actors of urban management known as good urban governance. There is no such a comprehensive approach in the metropolises of the country and no native model has been developed for good urban governance, while international organizations and institutions working in the field of urban governance have emphasized the development of an indigenous model of good urban governance. It is up to each country and city to overcome the problems mentioned above with this model of good urban governance. Therefore, in the absence of an indigenous and appropriate country model for good urban governance, a model for good urban governance in metropolitan areas should be developed so that it can move towards establishing good urban governance. The purpose of the research is to firstly outline the proportional model of good urban governance for metropolitan areas in terms of appropriate components, dimensions, and criteria, and secondly, by integrating an outline analysis to obtain strategies for moving towards good urban governance.
Methodology:
In the present study, first, a review of the various tools of good urban governance in the world has been conducted and the criteria and components of each have been summarized and then a general framework of criteria and components of good urban governance has been obtained by integrating similar criteria and components. The study was conducted in Mashhad city and 42 selected experts from seven stakeholders of Mashhad were selected as experts and Delphi Panel through Judicial and Snowball Sampling and participated in Delphi Panel and met the dimensions and criteria of good urban governance. They scored and then added or removed some items and then assessed the current status of Mashhad metropolis according to the final dimensions and criteria and identified their strengths and weaknesses. These stakeholders were divided into seven main categories: 1- Khorasan Razavi Governorate 2- Mashhad City Council 3- Mashhad Municipality 4- Astanqods Razavi 5- Private Sector and Economic Activists 6- Popular Organizations, NGOs and others popular institutions 7- University professors and independent scholars and experts in this field. Finally, a good and appropriate model of good urban governance for the city of Mashhad was determined based on the components, dimensions and criteria with each weight, evaluation of the current status of Mashhad based on this model with a score on the components, dimensions and criteria was carried out and the traffic guidelines from the current situation towards the prospect of good urban governance. To validate the results and provide executive solutions, two focus group meetings were held with the selected experts representing the above spectrum and the results were confirmed in Focus Group.
Results and discussion:
After performing the research stages, a suitable model of good urban governance for Mashhad with 3 concepts, 9 dimensions and 30 indicators was obtained and their scores and weight indicating desirable status were calculated. Also, the current status of Mashhad was obtained with respect to these dimensions and indicators. Among the indigenous dimensions of good urban governance for Mashhad, about 70% were from global model dimensions and about 30% were new and proposed by Delphi panel experts. For the indices, about 63% were derived from global model criteria and about 37% were new and proposed by Delphi panel experts. Considering the status score of Mashhad in terms of dimensions and criteria of good urban governance as well as their favorable status scores, the dimensions and criteria that had the most difference between the status quo and desirable were identified that require more effort to fill the status quo. And the combined strategies and executive policies for moving from the current situation to the optimal one were formulated according to the priority of each action.
Conclusion:
Given the divergence between the current and the desired situation, the dimensions and criteria of good urban governance were prioritized by combined measures and strategies and executive policies, and 9 strategies and 11 executive policies were identified as priorities. Strategic topics include integrated planning and implementation of urban government and public bodies, adoption of the integrated urban management bill, maximum transparency through information technology, integrated planning for pilgrimage and tourism, preparation of a comprehensive human capital document, Creating a platform for public participation in urban decision making, Support for public participation electronically, Special planning for the outskirts of Mashhad, Interdisciplinary strategic planning for the prospect of good urban governance. For future research, it is suggested that these indigenous patterns be developed for other metropolises of the country in accordance with the same process, also, in addition to the concepts, dimensions, and criteria, quantifiable sub-indicators can also be achieved for good urban governance in each city and continuously monitor and control these indicators in each city.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • good governance
  • good urban governance
  • urban governance
  • Urban Management
  • case study mashhad
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