عنوان مقاله [English]
Green space is one of the important components in the city's biological system and it is one of the basic demands of the urban community. Green space should fit with demands and physical volume of the city quantitatively and qualitatively and develop and expand in line with the ecological conditions of the city. This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of green space on the quality of urban life in order to improve the quality of life of citizens in Ahvaz. The method of this research descriptive and post-event type. Data collection was done by using two methods of library and field studies. The statistical population of this research includes all citizens in Ahvaz city. According to Cochran formula, the sample size was 390 people. The questionnaire was distributed randomly among citizens. In this research, five parameters of quality of life in relation to green space were studied and citizens' opinions were analyzed with t-test and spearman correlation test using by SPSS software. The findings showed that the effect of urban green space on the life satisfaction score with a mean of 3.81 and on social and psychological dimensions was 2.97 in the 95% confidence level in the mean and significance level. The impact of green space on public health and environment of citizens, with a mean of 3.58, is meaningful at a high level and all parameters of quality of life with green space are directly and positively related. Green space, as part of the body structure and urban texture, has a very close relationship with people's lives. Therefore, with the increase and improvement of green space in the city, the overall quality of life can be improved.
Green space is one of the most important components of urban life system and one of the basic needs of urban society. Green spaces improve the bioclimatic conditions of the city, create a few shades, increase humidity of the environment, reduce air pollution, create a quiet and proper atmosphere in an overcrowded urban area, create an eye-catching scene in the urban public landscape, create a favorable environment for citizens to spend their leisure time and communicate with each other, also green spaces provide an entertainment environment. The green space should be qualitative and quantitative in accordance with the requirements and physical size of the city and should be created and expanded according to the ecological conditions of the city. The rapid growth of urbanization in recent decades and disregard for the qualitative aspects of human life has had undesirable consequences on the level of mental health of individuals in urban and urban life, so that the public health of citizens is at greater risk, therefore the investigation of the status of green spaces in the cities, is vital for its impact on the quality of urban life and for sustainable development. In modern urban planning, planning and locating urban green space is very important. The purpose of this study was investigation the impact of green space on the quality of urban life, to improve the quality of life of the citizens in Ahvaz.
In this study, five parameters of quality of life related to green space were investigated such as essence of green space, physical health, environment, life satisfaction, psychological and social effects. In the context of the nature of urban green space, 6 items including: concept of green space, purpose of visiting, area of green space, satisfaction of green space, municipal activities and access to green space were questioned. In the section related to impacts of urban green spaces and parks on the physical health of citizens, 6 items were questioned, for instance: general health of citizens and their tendency for doing some activities, reduction of obesity, activity and ability of individuals, positive emotion, and the green space's fresh air. In the next section, life satisfaction and the impact of green space on it were as follows: increased work efficiency, a sense of accomplishment and enjoyment, forgetfulness of unpleasant thoughts, depression, an ordinary routine and social connections. In the context of the impact of green space on the environment of citizens, there are four items, including; reduction of air pollution, noise pollution, absorbing environment and reduction of particulate matter. Data were collected using two methods of library and field research. The statistical population of this study is all citizens of Ahvaz city which was estimated based on Cochran formula of sample size 390 people. The questionnaire was distributed among the citizens by simple random sampling. The experts judgment were used to determine the validity of questionnaire. Also, the Cronbach's alpha value was 0.814 to determine the reliability of the questionnaire, indicating good reliability of the study. In the first step, the results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that at 95% level, the data are normal. In this study, five parameters of quality of life in relation to green space were studied and citizens' views were analyzed by t-test and Spearman correlation test using SPSS software.
Results and discussion:
Findings showed that from the citizens' viewpoint, the effect of urban green space on life satisfaction with a mean of 3.81 and on the psychological and social dimension with a mean of 2.97 mean 95% confidence level at a moderate, significant level and the effect of green space on health. The general and living environment of the citizens, with a mean of 3.58 at high level, is significant and all parameters of quality of life with green space have a direct and positive relationship. According to surveys, there was a positive correlation between psychological and social effects and urban green space, considering the significance level of test which is less than 0.01, it can be stated that the calculated correlation coefficient is significant and can be generalized to the statistical population. In other words, with 99% confidence it can be stated that by increasing the parameter of urban green space, the positive psychological and social effects increase and green space has a direct effect on this parameter. There is a positive correlation between satisfaction with life and urban green space, According to the significance level of the test which is less than 0.05, it can be stated that the test was significant. According to the findings of the study, the general health parameter of citizens has the highest correlation with green space. Overall, urban green space is directly related to different aspects of citizens' quality of life, and all parameters are directly and positively correlated with green space, and quality of life increases as green space increases.
Green space as part of the body and texture of cities is very closely related to people's lives. In Urban Environmental Planning, It is vital to study and analyze these issues such as the structure of green space, the landscape of green space, the ecological structure of green space and its related functions as well as the potential of green space and its relation to the economic, social and human environment of urban construction. Urban green space planning, plays a vital role in urban environment sustainability and quality of life as an important part of urban space planning. These recommendations are presented in this study including: appropriate distribution of green space commensurate with population density, creation of green belts around the city, development of vegetation between the curb and pedestrian paths and also create special bicycle paths in parks and green sidewalks in order to enhance the quality of citizen's life.