عنوان مقاله [English]
The city is a place for activities and various cultural, social, administrative, commercial, and … that functions in which different urban elements and components are organized in an orderly, coordinated, manner with visual and physical values. The most important thing coming to mind when thinking of urban space is identity, and the primary sign of identity of any city or region will be its landscape. The use of monuments and elements in the city can serve as a barrier to the destruction of people’s identity, culture and history. Having taken a descriptive-analytical approach, this research tries to investigate the use of monuments and elements in raising cultural awareness and the extent to which citizens pay attention to such urban elements. First, the relevant concepts and theories were reviewed, which suggested a strong identity, mental and cultural relationship between citizens and the culturally-appropriate monuments and elements. Then, we divided all affecting factors of urban elements into four main groups, and studied them within the limit of the 1st municipal district of Shiraz. Finally, the findings and general suggestions were put forth. To analyze the data collected through an electronic questionnaire, which was distributed in the 1st municipal district of Shiraz and online communities, we used the SPSS software. First, we ran the Friedman hypothesis test followed by the one-sample t-test to investigate the attributes and different groups. The results showed that the elements could have a significant effect on the urban identity. According to the findings, the mental aspect from among different groups and environmental quality, identity as well as metaphorical references from among the indicators were ranked first from the citizens’ point of view.
City identity depends on the perceptions that the city's residents have of their surroundings, meaning that the concept of identity is related to the quality of life in the city. Also, each city must have its own distinct personality and identity. Today the identity of cities is undergoing rapid change, and the importance of urban elements as elements of city identity is doubled. In this regard, various urban symbols and elements are placed in public spaces as well as important and influential places of the city to convey the city’s identity to observers. Symbolism and attention to meaning in the city are so important that they become one of the values of the city form: "The city must represent and reinforce the community and the nature of society. Important elements of this goal include symbolism, cultural meanings, historical richness and traditional forms".
Neglecting the readability of the new passages in the city of Shiraz separates these passages from the historical urban context and reduces the urban identity. Symbols are among the important elements of the identification of cities that have a central role in presenting them to the audience as illustrations of the city’s past and present. Symbols and urban elements are among the most important monuments in architectural and urban design, sometimes even more important than the city itself. Symbols express the city's identity and personality and constitute its extract in a single structure. Therefore, the use of urban symbols and elements can increase the sense of identity in addition to creating readability in the passages. This study attempts to highlight the role of urban citizens in responding to citizens' needs and provides policies to enhance the identity of urban spaces and thus the quality of citizens’ lives, considering their views as city trustees and users. In this study, the influencing components of urban elements on urban identity are studied from the viewpoint of the citizens of Region 1 of Shiraz.
The research method employed in this study is analytical-descriptive and the data related to the theoretical concepts and approaches have been obtained through documentary and library studies. Questionnaires were distributed among the statistical population using the electronic questionnaire sampling method. The questionnaires consisting of questions in 4 dimensions and 15 indices were distributed among 400 sample population. Frequency distribution among the expert and non-expert citizens was the most among the non-expert respondents, which was about 57% (228 individuals). The frequency distribution of the expert group was 43% (127 individuals). The results were analyzed by SPSS software.
The results of ranking the influencing components of urban elements on citizens' identities are shown in the table below, with the highest rank for environmental quality and the lowest rank for urbanization.Significance test on the difference of average ranking of the dimensions of the elements components on urban identity A review of the average ranks shows that among the dimensions, the subjective dimension with the average rank of 3.14 is in the first place, and the physical dimension with the average rank of 2.61, the spatial dimension with the average rank of 2.15 and the semantic dimension with the average rank of 2.10 occupy the next places, respectively.
In designing the urban elements and symbols, components such as history which reflect the metaphorical references, identity and environmental quality must be further considered to promote cultural and urban identity values. Elements fitting the indigenous culture of our city can also be designed using the memories of the discerning people of our city. From the citizens' point of view, the environmental quality component is one of the most important components in the design of urban elements that can be effective in promoting the urban identity. In this regard, it is best to design the urban elements using new ideas and appropriate proportions and colors in constructions so that people can communicate more effectively with the elements.
We can use lighting to further our visualization and sense of vitality and to enhance social interactions, especially at night. This is due to the fact that lighting is one of the most influential components in social safety that enhances the peace, spirituality and vitality of the surrounding environment and must be considered seriously.