تحلیل فضایی فقر شهری از لحاظ شاخص‌های کالبدی(مورد مطالعه: کلان شهر اصفهان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سیدجمال الدین اسدآبادی،‌اسدآباد، ایران

2 گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد ایران

چکیده

استان اصفهان­، به عنوان صنعتی­ترین استان کشور در مدت یک دهۀ گذشته شناخته می­شود و به همین خاطر به یکی از مهاجرپذیرترین استان­های کشور تبدیل شده است. این مهاجرت بی­رویه و کنترل نشده پیامدهای نامطلوبی از جمله حاشیه­نشینی و تشکیل محله­های فقیرنشین را به دنبال داشته است. بر همین اساس هدف پژوهش حاضر، تحلیل فضایی و پهنه­بندی محله­های فقیرنشین کلان­شهر اصفهان بر اساس شاخص­های کالبدی جهت برنامه‌ریزی بهتر برای ساماندهی، توانمندسازی و افزایش کیفیت زندگی آنها است. پژوهش حاضر از نوع کاربردی و روش آن، توصیفی-تحلیلی است. داده­های پژوهش از بلوک­های آماری(1395) مرکز آمار ایران تهیه شده­اند. روش­های آماری مورد استفاده برای تحلیل داده­ها، مشتمل بر  AHP ، تاپسیس(Topsis) وHotspot است. بر اساس یافته­های پژوهش، شاخص­های قدمت بنا(با امتیاز 246 %)، ریزدانگی(با امتیاز 192/0) و تسهیلات(با امتیاز 181/0) تأثیر بیشتری در شکل­گیری پهنه­های فقر در کلان­شهر اصفهان را داشته­اند. شاخص­های قدمت بنا و تعداد اتاق به ترتیب بیشترین و کم­ترین ضریب تاثیر را داشته­اند. بر اساس شاخص نهایی وضعیت فقر از لحاظ شاخص­های کالبدی، 30 محله(16/15 %) دارای کیفیت مناسب، 35 محله(23/18 %) دارای کیفیت نسبتاًمناسب، 38 محله(79/19 %) در وضعیت متوسط، 45 محله(44/23 %) در وضعیت نسبتاً نامناسب و در نهایت 22 محله معادل 46/11 % از کل محله­ها در وضعیت نامناسبی قرار دارند. در واقع، حدود 35% از محله­های کلان­شهر اصفهان در وضعیت نامناسبی قرار دارند. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر آن است که محله­های دارای ارزش‌های بالاتر از میانگین در مرکز و تا حدودی در جنوب شهر و محله­های دارای ارزش پایین­تر از میانگین در شرق کلان­شهر اصفهان قرار گرفته‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial Analysis of Urban Poverty in Physical Indicators (Case Study: Isfahan Metropolis)

نویسندگان [English]

  • hafez mahdnejad 1
  • alireza gholami 2
1 Department of Geography, Faculty of Humanities, Sayed Jamaluddin Asadabad University, Assad, Iran
2 Department of Geography, Lorestan University, Khorramabad Iran
چکیده [English]

Isfahan province has been recognized as the most industrialized province in the country for the past decade and has therefore become one of the most migrant provinces in the country. This irregular and uncontrolled migration has had undesirable consequences, including the suburbanization and the formation of slums. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study is spatial analysis and zoning of slums of Isfahan metropolitan area based on physical indicators for better planning for organizing, empowering and enhancing their quality of life. This study is an applied one and its method is descriptive-analytical. The research data were obtained from Statistical Blocks of Iran Statistical Center (2016). Statistical methods used for data analysis include AHP, Topsis and Hotspot. Based on finding, the indexes of age of the building (246%), building materials (0.192), and facilities (0.181) had a greater impact on the formation of poverty zones in the Isfahan metropolitan area. Building age indicators whit (246%) and number of room’s whit (096%) respectively, have the highest and lowest impact coefficients. Based on the final index of poverty status in terms of physical indices, 30 neighborhoods (15.16%) are of good quality, 35 neighborhoods (18.23%) are of relatively poor quality, 38 neighborhoods (19.79%) are in moderate condition, 45 neighborhoods. (23.44%) are in poor condition and finally 22 neighborhoods (11.46%) are in poor condition. In fact, about 35% of Isfahan metropolitan areas are in poor condition. The results indicate that neighborhoods with higher than average values are located in the center and partly south of the city and neighborhoods with lower than average values are located east of the metropolitan area of Isfahan.
Extended abstract
Introduction
Accelerated migration to cities has created suburbs and slums. Urbanization of poverty is one of the biggest challenges for global development that will continue to affect two billion people living in poor areas if the current adverse trend continues. Iran's metropolitan areas are on the verge of being swallowed by urban margins, and if no precautionary measures are taken, the city's texts may soon be digested in the urban margins. Isfahan metropolis has had the highest rate of industrialization and rapid population growth in the last hundred years. The population of Isfahan has soared from 80,000 to two million in the last hundred years. This degree of disintegration and urbanization without urbanization have created ultra-malevolent neighborhoods marked by poverty and unemployment. One of the most important consequences is the lack of services and amenities, the formation of dysfunctional and unstable textures in the neighborhoods of Isfahan. In this regard, it is necessary to determine the urban poverty zones in Isfahan city as well as the patterns of urban poverty distribution as a prerequisite for a solution to the situation. According to statistics from the Ministry of Roads and Urban Development (2019),
About 10% of the city's 140000 hectares of inefficient urban textures are located in Isfahan province, about 4000 hectares of which are in the city of Isfahan, half of which are informal settlements and half are worn and historical textures. According to the Census of the Year 1395, 436453 people (22.35% of the total population of Isfahan) reside in worn-out tissue. People live in the suburbs. Within Isfahan, there is another Isfahan that suffers from poverty and a lack of facilities. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study is to zoning the slums in Isfahan city based on physical indices to assist in their organization and empowerment.
Research Methodology
This study is an applied one and its method is descriptive-analytical. The research data were obtained from Statistical Blocks of Iran Statistical Center (2016). The statistical population of the study is the legal boundary of the historic city of Isfahan in 2016.
AHP and Topsis statistical methods have been used for data analysis, indexing and extraction of the final urban poverty index. Hotspot model was used to measure and determine poverty or cluster randomness in Isfahan metropolis.
In answering the research questions, the focus is on two main axes. First, poverty zoning in Isfahan metropolis is based on physical indicators. At this stage, first, using the AHP model, the coefficients of influence of all physical indices including facilities, type of effluent disposal, type of building materials, number of rooms, age of the building and granularity were calculated. Then, using TOPSIS model, percent and number of metropolitan areas of Isfahan were calculated according to each of these indices.
Then, using the TOPSIS model, Isfahan metropolitan areas were classified into a five-point range including "appropriate, relatively appropriate, moderate, inappropriate and relatively inappropriate". Accordingly, the poverty zoning map of Isfahan metropolitan neighborhoods has been produced in relation to these indicators.
Finally, by combining all the indices, the impact factor, percentage and number and zoning map of poverty in Isfahan metropolitan areas have been extracted. Second, spatial analysis of poverty zones or its clustering has been done in Isfahan metropolis. At this stage, using the Hotspot model, clustering or spatial analysis of poverty based on the final map derived from the integration of indices has been discussed. Arc GIS and Arc View software have been used for indexing and mapping.
Findings
Calculation of Impact Factor Coefficients based on Hierarchical Analysis (AHP) Model shows that Impact Factor Indicators related to components of building materials, antiquity, wastewater, effluent disposal, number of rooms and facilities respectively are 0.192, 0.224, 0.159, 0.126, 0.096, and 0.181. The antiquity index scored the highest with a score of 0.224, while the lowest score was in the number of rooms in a residential unit with a score of 0.096. According to the results of TOPSIS model, 30 neighborhoods (15.16%) were of good quality, 35 neighborhoods (18.23%) were of relatively poor quality, 38 neighborhoods (19.79%) were in medium condition, 45 neighborhoods (23.44%). %) Are in poor condition and finally 22 neighborhoods (11/46%) are in poor condition. Therefore, most neighborhoods are moderately low. In fact, most of the neighborhoods are in a relatively inappropriate and inappropriate state, indicating the poor quality of Isfahan metropolitan areas in terms of quality and physical structure. The final zoning map of poverty indicates that the southern parts of the city and partly the central and northern parts of the city are in good condition, while the eastern and western zones of Isfahan metropolitan area are in poor physical condition. Spatial analysis of physical poverty using the Hotspot model indicates that neighborhoods with higher than average values ​​are located in the center and partly south of the city and neighborhoods with lower than average values ​​are located east of the Isfahan metropolitan area. Heuristic analysis of spatial data has highlighted some areas that need more public intervention such as, provision of social programs and public infrastructure to empower residents and guide policy makers and planners in the right direction to reduce urban inequality.
Conclusion
According to the findings of the study, the indexes of antiquity (246%), granularity (0.192) and facilities (0.181) had the most impact on the formation of poverty zones in Isfahan metropolis.
The highest and lowest impact coefficients, respectively, were the indicators of building age and number of rooms, respectively. Thus, the first hypothesis of the research confirms the greater impact of building and building materials indices on the formation of poverty zones in Isfahan metropolitan area.
The results show that about 35% of Isfahan metropolitan areas are in poor condition and most of them are located in eastern and western zones of Isfahan metropolis.
Accordingly, there is a direct relationship between poverty and the marginal textures in the Isfahan metropolis, as most of the Isfahan suburbs are located east of it.
Therefore, the second hypothesis confirms the relation between poverty and marginalization in Isfahan metropolis. Spatial analysis of poverty in Isfahan metropolis indicates that some kind of spatial polarization has been formed between the central and southern neighborhoods of the city and the eastern neighborhoods of Isfahan. This indicates that the Isfahan metropolis is moving towards social-spatial inequality and social-spatial polarization. In fact, services are not responsive to their needs because of the rapid growth of city migration. This has led to a lack of facilities and infrastructure and has caused urban neighborhoods to have different access to these facilities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • slums
  • Empowerment
  • Spatial analysis
  • hierarchical analysis
  • Isfahan metropolis
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