توسعه مدل آنتروپی شانون-وینر بر مبنای پارادایم‌های توسعه شهری مبتنی بر اختلاط کاربری زمین شهری

نوع مقاله : مقاله برگرفته از پایان نامه

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران

2 استاد گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی قزوین، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی

چکیده

         اگرچه امروزه برتری و اهمیت رویکرد توسعة مختلط کاربری­های شهری در فرآیند شهرنشینی و برنامه­ریزی شهری، آشکار شده است؛ امّا این رویکرد، ضرورتاً یک رویکرد غالب نیست؛ بلکه ساختاری از شهر را تولید می­کند که مدّ نظر پارادایم­های معاصرِ توسعة شهریِ مبتنی براختلاط کاربری زمین شهری نظیر نوشهرگرایی می­باشد. برای پویایی این رویکرد جدید، نیاز به بازاندیشی در عوامل و عناصر شکل­دهندة ساختار و فرم شهری است که مولّد تنوع باشند. شاخص «تنوع» زیرمجموعة «الگوی توزیع» به­عنوان یکی از اجزای  مدل ارزیابی اختلاط کاربری‌ زمین شهری است. شاخص­های مطرح شده در این مدل به­ویژه «تنوع» بسیار پیچیده­اند؛ لذا جهت تبیین و شفاف­سازی این مفهوم به مطالعات بین­رشته­ای روی آورده و از مفاهیم «تنوع زیستی» وام­گرفته و بر مبنای پارادایم­های توسعة شهری مبتنی بر اختلاط کاربری زمین شهری که به­طور مستقیم بر محیط­زیست تأثیرگذار هستند، بسط داده شده است؛ علاوه بر شاخص­های استخراج شده ازنظریات، مدل­ها و روش­های ارزیابی «تنوع» بر اساس روش «تحلیل محتوی کیفی»، با استفاده از «روش دلفی» بر پایة نظرات خبرگان و متخصصین شاخص­های جدیدی استخراج وجهت ارزیابی و اولویت­بندی نتایجِ استخراج شده از روش­های آماری، نمودار «نقاط پراکنده» با معیار «نقطة شکست»، «ضریب هماهنگی کندال» به­منظور ارزیابی میزان اتفاق­نظر اعضاء پنل و میزان اطمینان نسبت به شاخص­های اجماع شده و روش پردازش داده­های «تحلیل محتوی» استفاده و برآیند همه مفاهیم و شاخص­های مورد بررسی، با­عنوان «مدل تنوع مکان (PDM)» تبیین شد. این مدل شامل 4 دسته و 12 شاخص می­باشد که درواقع دسته «الف» با میانگین وزن دسته (310/0) بیشترین اهمیت و دسته «د» با میانگین وزن دسته (180/0) کم­ترین اهمیت را دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Development of Shannon-Weaner Entropy Model Based on Urban Development Paradigm Based on Urban Mixed Land Use

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Ghahremani 1
  • Mohamad Pourjafar 2
  • navid saeidi rezvani 3
1 PhD Student of Urban Planning, Department of Urban Planning,Faculity of Architecture and Urban Planning, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.
2 Full Professor of Urban Planning, Faculity of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modares University,Tehran, Iran
3 azad university of qazvin
چکیده [English]

Although, the significance of development of the Urban Mixed land use approach is specified in the urbanization and urban planning process but this approach is not necessarily a dominant approach but also it produces the structure of the city for the contemporary paradigms of urban planning such as New Urbanism and Smart Growth. The notable issue of urban mixed development is that this form of development is a form of Urban "Place Making". For the dynamics of this new approach, it is necessary to rethink the factors and elements that the structure and form of the city that generates diversity. Diversity Index is a subset of the distribution model, which is one of the components of the mixing evaluation model. The indicators presented in this model are highly ambiguous and complex; Therefore, in order to explain this concept, it used interdisciplinary studies and borrowed from biodiversity concepts and developed on based on urban development paradigms Based on Urban Mixed land use paradigms that directly affect the environment. The most important indicator of species diversity evaluation in ecological concepts is "Shannon Entropy Model", which includes two indicators of number and species. In order to develop this model, researches, theories, models, methods of evaluation of "diversity" were investigated. The implications of these indicators were very complex and ambiguous, and considering these indices simultaneously, they added ambiguity. Some of these indicators overlap and others have had a different degree of significance. In addition to the extracted indexes based on the Qualitative Content analysis method, using Delphi Method new indexes was extracted based on expert opinions and experts. The statistical methods and Scatter, Deflection Point & Qualitative Content data Processing Method were used to evaluate and prioritize the extracted results. The results of all of the concepts and indicators examined were described as the "Place Diversity Model (PDM)".
Extended Abstract
Introduction: Although, the significance of development of the Urban Mixed land use approach is specified in the urbanization and urban planning process but this approach is not necessarily a dominant approach but also it produces the structure of the city to for the contemporary paradigms of urban planning such as New Urbanism, smart growth. The notable issue of urban mixed development is that this form of development is a form of Urban "Place Making". For the dynamics of this new approach, it is necessary to rethink the factors and elements that the structure and form of the city that generates diversity. Diversity Index is a subset of the distribution model, which is one of the components of the mixing evaluation model.
Methodology: The philosophical perspective of this research is an exploratory and deductive research approach. Research Method the qualitative research and the techniques used are Delphi method and Shannon technique and statistical methods, "scattered points" and "breakpoints" are used. The statistical population of this study includes all experts and experts in urban area. Since the sampling and selection of experts in the Delphi method was based on purposive sampling and not random, the subjects were selected according to the criteria of the research subject. Data collection tools are specialized texts, observation, interviews and documents and urban planning criteria. The mixed-use scale is the scale of a metropolitan area to a building that emphasizes neighborhoods in this study.
Results and discussion: The indicators presented in this model are highly ambiguous and complex; therefore, in order to explain this concept, it used interdisciplinary studies and borrowed from biodiversity concepts and developed on based on urban development paradigms Based on Urban Mixed land use paradigms that directly affect the environment. The most important indicator of species diversity evaluation in ecological concepts is "Shannon Entropy Model", which includes two indicators of number and species. In order to develop this model, researches, theories, models, methods of evaluation of "diversity" were investigated. The implications of these indicators were very complex and ambiguous, and considering these indices simultaneously, they added ambiguity. Some of these indicators overlap and others have had a different degree of significance. In addition to the extracted indexes based on the Qualitative Content analysis method, using Delphi Method new indexes was extracted based on expert opinions and experts. The statistical methods and Scatter, Deflection Point & Qualitative Content data Processing Method were used to evaluate and prioritize the extracted results. The results of all of the concepts and indicators examined were described as the "Place Diversity Model (PDM)". Category "A" with average batch weight (0.310) includes land use mixing index, category "B"  with average batch weight (0.270) including land use per capita, neighborhood access, production rate Travel and intersection density, category "C" with mean category weight (0.240) including occupancy density indices, housing mixing grade and plaque area, and category "D" with mean category weight (0.180) including density indices Demographic, ownership, sex, and age composition are in fact category "A" with the mean weight of the category (0.310) being the most important and category "D" having the least weight of the category (0.180) being the least important.
Conclusion: How the socioeconomic aggregation of urban contexts is related to the composition of community groups, activities, uses, buildings and public open spaces of the city. Hybrid developments are related to the variety of people's wants and their lifestyles, and must be adapted to the cultural needs of the people, and are, in a sense, their physical expression. Another condition for achieving diversity in the hybrid urban development pattern is the real estate development conditions in these complexes, which is a very complex and ambiguous dimension. Homes should be varied, so that for all social groups based in mixed locations, it should be possible to choose and pay in terms of purchases and rentals. In this case, one can expect more people to choose and encourage them to live. The housing model should be able to accommodate all age groups, from the elderly to the young, and from all low-income to high-income social groups, to the other purpose of the complex development of land uses that combine and bring together generations and social groups.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Shannon Entropy Model
  • Urban Development Paradigms
  • Mixed land-Use
  • diversity
  • Place Diversity Model (PDM)
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