عنوان مقاله [English]
Place attachment is the relationship between people and places. This attachment is the basis of communication and positive emotional engagement of humans in space that it can be created by individual, plural, cultural and social features. The attachment to the place and the sense of belonging to it, encourage individuals to revive their home and local atmosphere completely. The sense of belonging and participation can create collaborative democracy, thereby the performance of various social and economic programs in the local community can noticeably succeed and they can increase the quality of living.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective factors on location attachment in Ghaemshahr city. The current research is applied in terms of purpose, and in terms of collecting data, except for descriptive-survey research and fully structural equation modeling. Data were collected by a questionnaire with 4 components (spatial attachment, spatial dependency, spatial identity, social bonding) and 40 items based on the responses of residents of Qaemshahr city with a sample size of 384 people. Data collected through SPSS21 and Smart-PLS3 software were analyzed. The results of this study indicate that in the city of Qaemshahr, spatial attachment and its components are at a low level. The component of spatial dependence and spatial identity from the perspective of individual context and social bond index from the perspective of social context have a positive and significant effect on the level of place attachment (emotional attachment). Therefore, simultaneous strengthening of both individual and social contexts strengthens place attachment in Qaemshahr city.
Spatial attachment was introduced as one of the important concepts in the field of environmental psychology and refers to the emotional connection between people and places that have given it a special meaning in the process of interaction with it. Space attachment involves a complex relationship between man and the environment, and includes the study of the nature of psychological processes, the role of place traits, and the structure and space of human-space interactions, especially attachment to places. Ghaemshahr city, as one of the cities of Mazandaran province, has grown and developed in the years before the revolution due to the establishment of textile factories. The textile industry's labor force has settled not only in the surrounding towns but also in various provinces, and their only source of income has been income. Given that the category of spatial attachment is a phenomenon that is formed in the long run and is directly related to the sense of identity, where a person has spent his childhood and has more memories of it, dependence is therefore a greater sense of belonging and attachment if imagined. Immigrants with different cultures cannot find much belonging to new places and social groups, so the aim of this study is to investigate the components affecting emotional (spatial) attachment in Ghaemshahr. In this connection, the research hypotheses are as follows: Hypothesis 1: Spatial dependence has a positive and significant effect on spatial attachment. . Hypothesis 2: Spatial identity has a positive and significant effect on spatial attachment. Hypothesis 3: Social bonding has a positive and significant effect on spatial attachment.
The present research method is descriptive-analytical and in terms of purpose it is of applied research type and data collection has been done by documentary-library and field methods. In the data analysis section, the technique of modeling structural equations 5 has been used with the approach of partial least squares approach and using smart pls3 software. Structural equation modeling consists of two parts: measurement model and structural model. Model variables are divided into two categories of hidden and overt variables, and hidden variables are used at different levels. The measurement model section includes the questions (indicators) of each dimension along with that dimension, and the relationships between the questions and the dimensions in this section are analyzed. The structural model section also contains all the structures proposed in the main research model, and the degree of correlation between the structures and the relationships between them is focused in this section. The research components have been developed using library studies and past research. The statistical population according to the research subject, the residents of the city with a population of 196050 people, which was determined using the Cochran's formula of the sample size of 384 people. The scale of measurement is based on the Likert range from very low to very high and the questioning score is from 1 to 5.
The results of the first hypothesis test (the effect of the dependence component on spatial attachment) according to the path coefficient of 0.331 and the value of 2.395 show that the spatial dependence component has a positive and relatively weak effect on spatial attachment. In the second hypothesis test (the effect of spatial identity component on spatial attachment) with a path coefficient of 0.674 and the value of t 7.006, it was determined that the spatial identity component has a positive and high effect on spatial attachment. The path coefficient of 0.517 and the value of t 80/807 in the study of the third hypothesis (the effect of the social bond component on spatial attachment) indicate that the social bond component has a significant effect on spatial attachment. To analyze the status of the constructive indicators related to each of the indicators of this research, T statistics and P significance coefficient have been used. As can be seen in Table 8, the T-statistic for the three hypotheses is five percent higher than the critical value at 1.96, which indicates that the effect of each indicator is significant. General fit of the model: The GOF criterion is related to the general part of the structural models. This means that this criterion can also control the fit of the general part after examining the fit of the measurement section and the structural section of its general research model. The sense of place identity in the citizens of this city is moderate, but in the section on the effect of emotional attachment, it showed a place that has a high impact.
In this study, the mean spatial dependence is below average and also the result of the model expresses the weak effect of this component, which means that in Ghaemshahr city, functional dependence and functional and physical environmental conditions have not been able to locally attach citizens to the city and The neighborhood is growing. This component is influenced by individual characteristics and the comparison of the environment with other ideals and places. In fact, the components of this research have been studied mentally and citizens 'perceptions, and the discussion of environmental dependence and satisfaction in the objective dimension may have a better situation in the city compared to citizens' perceptions. The result of the third hypothesis is consistent with the research of Amir Kafi and Fathi (2011), Naqdi et al. (2016) and Bastani and Nikzad (2014) who examined the effect of social ties and social capital on attachment and sense of belonging.