عنوان مقاله [English]
Cities with an increasing percentage of population and urbanization expansion, they face significant challenges, including spatial inequality.The role of metropolises due to the cumulative effects of population growth challenges, it is very important. Although cities are considered the center of innovation, but the innovation level between regions is not evenly distributed. The purpose of this study is to level the Tabriz regions in terms of enjoyment of innovative city indicators. This research is based on the purpose the applied research and based on the nature and method the comparative research and the data collection method, it is a survey.Using the Cochran's formula, 384 citizens and 27 experts with snowballs were selected as a sample. The citizens and experts’s questionnaire reliability respectively with values 0/89 and 0/93 approved. The results obtained from ANP show that the sub-criteria of educational centers and science and technology parks respectively with values 0/104046 and 0/908955 are the highest and area and sub-criteria of population respectively with values 0/00374 and 0/757537, have the least effect on the movement of Tabriz city towards an innovative city. An examination of the innovative city indicators distribution shows that region 8 with a Topsis rate of 0/96477 is in the first rank and region 4 with a Topsis rate of 0/680881 is in the last rank of the innovation level. The research findings show that the innovative city indicators are not distributed fairly, there is a spatial focus on the indicators distribution. Therefore, the management of Tabriz metropolis in order to realize the innovative city needs to stimulate innovation through fair distribution of innovative city indicators and decentralization from the center.
Keywords: Tabriz Metropolis, Innovative City, ANP technique, TOPSIS, Spatial Focus.
Innovative city is among new concepts in urban studies, highlighted by geographers, economists and sociologists, in achieving a knowledge-community and knowledge-based development. In this regard, city has been considered in a hybrid approach as a place where creativity, knowledge, creative and innovative industries and knowledge economy. Successful cities in this context are not only the main urban centers known as world cities that have unique privileges in terms of global economic, cultural and political activities at the highest level in the world cities hierarchy. But, cities that have created the necessary conditions for fostering new ideas and implementing them and attracting innovation elements are successful. Cities are the right place to promote innovation and City managers by providing the opportunity to innovation, it provides a competitive advantage for cities in the era of globalization. Cities have been for a long time known as an engine of innovation, creation of community wealth, and an environment for innovation that should establish sustainable innovation systems to resolve Main issues of sustainability. Although cities are considered as the center for innovation, the innovation level is constant over time and space and/or not evenly distributed.
This research is based on the purpose of the applied research type and based on the nature and method of comparative research.In this research, the data collection method was used to investigate the indicators of the innovative city, 11main criteria and20sub-criteria and202 indicators selected on the basis of previous research, From the organizations in person and on the website of the relevant organizations, and qualitative data have been taken through the distribution of questionnaires and interviews. Using Cochran formula, were selected 384citizens in 9regions of Tabriz and 27experts by snowball method. The questionnair evalidity was confirmed by experts and the reliability of the citizens 'questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha was 0/89 and the experts' questionnaire was 0/93. In this research; have been used ANP multi-criteria technique to weigh the criteria and sub-criteria. And In order to rank the regions, In terms of having innovative city indicators; from the Topsis model and software packs the Excel, SPSS, Super Decision and Expert Choice.
Results and discussion:
In this research, nine regional municipalities of metropolitan Tabriz regions will be compared together based on assessing the enjoyment degree of the innovative city indicators. In this regard, ANP multi-criteria technique is used for weighting the indicators. Then, based on TOPSIS technique, nine urban regionare ranked according to the innovative city indicators. In order to prioritize sub-criteria, should be created a network structure (purpose, criteria, and sub-criteria). Meanwhile, criteria and sub-criteria have been selected based on previous research. Enp designed structure in software Super Decision, which is presented in the form of a template, includes 11 major criteria (scale, creative and innovative industries, creative and innovative class, innovation infrastructure, efficiency and effectiveness, vitality, communication technology, institutions, human capital, social capital, Quality of life) and 20sub-criteria. The results obtained from ANP show that the sub-criteria of educational centers and science and technology parks respectively with values 0/104046 and 0/908955 are the highest and area and sub-criteria of population respectively with values 0/00374 and 0/757537, have the least effect on the movement of Tabriz city towards an innovative city. According to the indicators studied by the secondary data and the questionnaire and calculation of the rate of topsis, From the standpoint of the indicators of the creative and innovative industries, the creative and innovative class, the infrastructure of innovation, vitality, communication technology, efficiency and effectiveness, social capital and quality of life the region 8is in the first rank. However, in terms of the urban scale indicator of the region 1 and the human resources and the institutional framework indicators of the region 2 are in the first rank. From the standpoint of the indicators of the creative and innovative industries, the creative and innovative class, innovation infrastructure, institutional framework, efficiency, and effectiveness and quality of life in region10 is in the Last rank. Similarly, the region 5 in terms of the urban scale indicator, the region 6 in terms of the indicators of human resources and social capital, the region4in terms of the indicator of communication technology and the region 3 in terms of vitality indicator are in the Last rank. The region, which is at a high level according to the main criteria, since it is on the path of creation and innovation, the realization of an innovative city is achievable with medium and long term planning. According to the amount of TOPSIS communication technology criteri , respectively, eight region (0.9647), two region (0.155438), five region (0.36722), three region (0.129816), one region (0.121428), six region (08/070709), ten region (078939/0), seven region (07224/0) and four (068081/0) are at the first to last level of innovation. An examination of the innovative city indicators distribution shows that region 8 with a Topsis rate of 0/96477 is in the first rank and region 4 with a Topsis rate of 0/680881 is in the last rank of the innovation level. The research findings show that the innovative city indicators are not distributed fairly, there is a spatial focus on the indicators distribution.
The result of this research indicates that the innovative city indicators are not distributed equitably and there is a focus on spatial distribution of innovative city indicators. Region 8 because of its centrality, ranked first in the innovative and it is large gap to other regions in terms of enjoyment of innovative city indicators. The reason for this gap is following the urban management of centralization policies in the city center and the lack of compliance the distribution of indicators with the population of the regions. The management of the Tabriz metropolis in order to realize the innovative city requires attention to the fair distribution of innovative city indicators and decentralization of the center. The fair distribution of the innovative city indicators will lead to the development of the city and gaining competitive advantage among cities in the process of globalization. Therefore, there is a need to stimulate innovation through the equal distribution of innovative city indicators to realize an innovative city for economic growth and finding solutions for social, economic, physical and environmental challenges.
- Nazmfar, H. (2017). Urban development predictions direction of using a combination GIS and Bayesian the probabilistic model (case study: Ardabil), Human Geography Research Quarterly, 49, 357-370.