عنوان مقاله [English]
In modern cities, there is little spaces for creative urban groups. The spaces that are both a place for citizens to be creative and as a space for knowledge-based and creative interactions and activities in the city to attract citizens' innovative ideas. The purpose of this study is to present a model to investigate the characteristics of creative city in Yazd District3. The research method is descriptive-analytical and applied research. By reviewing the research literature and obtaining expert opinion, 10 main indicators were identified. Then a structured matrix questionnaire was developed to determine the relationship between these indicators and the data obtained from the questionnaire analyzed by using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM). It is plotted on 8 levels in an interactive grid. Also, the indices influence and dependence degree of indices have been studied. According to the findings, there is the most influential index in the matrix of influence-dependency, the index of "academic education" and the most dependent index of "vitality of urban space" in Yazd District3. As a result, the academic education index is one of the most important and key indicators of the creative city. Therefore, the realization of the creative city depends on the attention of the authorities to the index of academic education in Yazd District3, and organizations with this attitude should design their own long-term plans for the realization of the creative city. As a result, strategies are suggested such as utilizing the capabilities of partner universities for creativity-driven projects, creativity and entrepreneurship workshops in the local arts and crafts industry, the use of government facilities and private sector investment.
The idea of a "creative city" that emerged from the 1980s onwards was an attempt to rebuild cities globally and one of the most innovative theories in the continuation of the third wave of urbanization. In fact, the creative city is a new initiative to transform the city from a standstill to an evolutionary one, emphasizing the ever-present focus on technology, infrastructure, manufacturing, and human resources.
Yazd due to its relative location and abundant natural, historical and cultural capacity, has been registered as the first historical city of Iran in the UNESCO World Heritage List; In each case, they have seized it, despite obstacles we can scarcely imagine. The city has 5 urban areas that include historical areas and new urban contexts, each of which is somehow associated with capabilities and problems. Among these areas, Zone 3 has been selected as a model that is more visible than other areas, academic centers, new urban contexts, high literacy levels, income levels and land prices, and increased immigration, albeit poor development. There is also a city towards this area and air pollution is more in it than other areas.
In this regard, it seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What are the dimensions and characteristics of the realization of a creative city in Region 3 of Yazd?
2. What are the relations between the indicators of the realization of the creative city in region 3 of Yazd city?
3. What is the level of indicators of the realization of the creative city in region 3 of Yazd city?
The method of this research is practical in terms of the type and purpose of the research. In terms of data collection method, it is descriptive-analytical. Also, in particular, the technique and method used in this research is the method of interpretive structural modeling (ISM) which in the research findings section, simultaneously with the implementation of the model, step by step method of using the model on the data. Two methods have been used to collect data that are library and field studies.
The statistical population of the study are the citizens of District 3 of Yazd (85731 people) and experts of this municipality of this region. The sample size among the citizens of Region 3 was 384 according to Cochran's method and a simple random sampling method was used to complete the questionnaires. Cronbach's alpha test was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire and content validity was used to measure the validity of the measurement tool.
The method of ISM includes seven steps:
1. Identify problem-related variables
The 10 main indicators of the creative city in this study were identified including participation indicators, higher education, innovation, art, active class, landscape, urban diversity, efficiency and effectiveness, communication technology and vitality of urban space.
2. Formation of Structural Interactive Matrix (SSIM)
The SSIM itself is a variable-sized matrix in which the first row and column of those indicators are listed in order. At this stage, the relationships between the research indicators are analyzed in two ways, both pairs, and the experts use the following symbols to determine the relationships between the indicators.
V: means the index i leads to j; A: means the index j leads to i;
X: To show the two-way effect; O: To show the absence of a relationship between the two indicators.
3. Form the initial access matrix
The initial access matrix is obtained by converting the structural self-interaction matrix into a two-value matrix (zero and one).
4. Create a final access matrix
Therefore, since the initial access matrix is obtained, its internal compatibility must be established. Thus, if i leads to j and j leads to k, then i must lead to k.
5. Determining the relationships and leveling of indicators
In this step, using the final access matrix, after determining the input and output sets, the subscription of these sets is obtained for each of the indicators.
6. Draw a network model of interactions
At this stage, according to the level of indicators and the final access matrix and through the elimination of secondary relations, the final model is obtained.
7. Analysis of the power of influence and the degree of dependence
At this stage, the variables are classified into four groups. Autonomous variables (zone 1) that have weak penetration power and dependence. Dependent variables (zone 2) that have low penetration power but high dependence. Link variables (zone 3) that have high penetration power and dependency. Independent variables (zone 4) that have high penetration power and low dependency. Variables with high penetration power are also called key variables.
In the present study, at the first, 10 indicators affecting the creative city were identified; then, using the technique (ISM), the relationships between the indicators were determined and designed in the form of an 8-level model. According to this model, the realization of a creative city depends on the key indicators of higher education and the active class, because it affects all other indicators and should be given special attention as the most influential factors. The use of higher education after residential use accounts for 20.4% in this region, which makes it more possible to become a creative region, and thus the characteristics of the active class, communication technology. And participation is at the next level. Also, the majority of citizens have stated that the communication technology index in this region is medium, but they have expressed the share of the participation index with a low percentage.
According to the results of ISM technique, the vitality index of urban space, which is in the first level, is affected by other indicators and does not affect other indicators. Also, the vitality indicators of urban space, diversity and landscape are located in the dependent cluster area, respectively. According to the information in the questionnaire, in 3 district of Yazd, the majority of people have expressed the characteristics of the vitality of urban space and diversity as average.
The indicators of art, innovation, efficiency, and effectiveness are located in the area of the transplant cluster; any change in these indicators can affect other indicators in general. The causal relationship explained in the present research model, while providing guidance for guiding executive efforts, enhances the effectiveness of managers' decisions during the creative city realization process. Prioritizing research indicators by identifying their strengths and weaknesses can be used as an appropriate model for policy making and strategy development