عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, activities in cities such as household fuels and transportation, poor waste management of urban waste have all directly and indirectly led to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and have had many adverse effects on climate change; Therefore, it is necessary to examine factors affecting this important issue and to moderate its adverse effects. Thus, first, by combining the SWOT and FTOPSIS models, the superiority of the weaknesses in the internal environment and the threats in the external environment were determined. Then, using the COPRAS model and using a questionnaire including 6 components and 30 indicators, the most important components affecting the realization of low carbon urban development were investigated. In the next phase, by examining the quality of communication structure and the impact of strategic planning strategies of low carbon city on the realization of its components in Sanandaj city by using modeling of structural equations in the form of Amos Graphic software, the "role of strategic planning for the development of the low-carbon city and its implementation in the city of Sanandaj" was examined. The results show that component of low carbon urban development has the highest score, and based on architecture of the communication structure, strategic planning of low carbon city through its four explanatory strategies has a positive and significant impact on the implementation of low carbon city, in the form of 6 components. This is based on the weighted regression obtained equal to 0.486. The results indicate that the formulation of detailed and strategic strategies for a low carbon city can be instrumental in achieving a sustainable low carbon city in the form of a low-carbon environment, low carbon economy, low carbon transportation, low carbon urban development and planning.
There is no doubt that sustainable development cannot be discussed without considering the issue of urbanization and its consequences. Coordinated development between different sectors, such as economic, social, and environmental systems, is an important part of urban sustainability that directly affects the quality of urban life. However, the consequences of rapid urbanization have created many challenges that have made cities the main cause of instability in the world. Today, about half of the world's population lives in cities, and by 2050 that population will increase to more than 50 percent. Studies show that cities will soon have about 90 percent of the population, 70 to 75 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, and 75 percent of energy consumption. In order to counter climate change and achieve the goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, various governments have taken many steps to reduce carbon emissions. In general, the start point of low-carbon cities dates back to 2002, when the Kyoto Protocol explicitly blamed various countries, especially industrialized ones, for developing appropriate climate programs and reducing carbon dioxide production. The protocol was presented as a guide to "increasing demand for CO2 emissions and reducing climate change in cities around the world".
The present study is "applied-developmental" in terms of its purpose and a "descriptive-analytical" one in terms of its methodology. In this regard, for the collection of descriptive data, documentary studies of basic texts have been used as library studies. To collect analytical data, the survey method was used using a questionnaire. Thus, according to the macro variables and objectives drawn for research analysis, qualitative indicators in the form of strategies explaining the strategic planning of the low-carbon city and indicators explaining the low-carbon city in the form of a questionnaire, have been quantified through a survey of experts and citizens, and have been evaluated using analytical models and tools. According to the objectives of determining the priority of domestic and foreign environmental strategies and the final strategy of strategic planning of low carbon city in Sanandaj city and determining the priority of the components of sustainable low carbon city in this city, and also to assessing the impact of low-carbon city strategies on achieving sustainable low-carbon city components, a combination of SWOT model and fuzzy TOPSIS model (FTOPSIS) was used to prioritize domestic and foreign environmental strategies and the ultimate low-carbon strategic planning strategy; And the Capras model (COPRAS) was used to prioritize and determine the importance of sustainable low carbon city components, And structural equation modeling (AMOS) has been used to determine the quality of communication structure and the impact of strategic planning strategies of low carbon city on the realization of components of sustainable low carbon city in Sanandaj. According to the understudy variables and the subject and objectives of the research, two questionnaires were used. The first questionnaire is related to the explanatory strategies of sustainable low carbon city, which has been compiled in the form of SWOT schema using content analysis method as a content reading of relevant literature and experiences of Sanandaj city in the field of carbon production. The second questionnaire was compiled in the form of 6 macro components and 25 operational indicators. The sample size of the citizens is equal to 322 citizens of Sanandaj who have been selected based on Cochran's formula with statistical homogeneity of 0.7 and with a confidence level of 0.95 by non-probable random method.
Results and discussion
The validity obtained for the strategic planning questionnaire of low carbon city in Sanandaj was 0.79 and the component of stable low carbon city was 0.81, which was a suitable and high validity. Combining the SWOT model and FTOPSIS model, it was found that weaknesses in the internal environment and threats in the external environment are superior, and ultimately the final strategy is a defensive strategy. The results of structural equation modeling represent the results of COPRAS, which were performed using a questionnaire of 6 components and 30 indicators show that the component of low carbon urban development has the highest score and the final component is to reduce carbon in Sanandaj city.
The results show that based on the architecture of communication structure, strategic planning of low carbon city through its four explanatory strategies has a positive and significant effect on the realization of a stable low carbon city in the form of its 6 components. This amount is equal to 0.486 based on the weighted regression obtained. In fact, the results show that developing accurate and strategic strategies to have a low carbon city can pave the way for a sustainable low-carbon city in the form of a low-carbon environment, low-carbon society, low-carbon economy, low-carbon transportation, low-carbon urban development, and low-carbon planning. These results are in line with the results of previous research such as Hunter et al, Chan et al, An et al, and Rimi & Aliyu, and confirm them. The results of these studies also show that the criteria and characteristics of urban design and planning can have a potential impact on reducing carbon emissions and greenhouse gases. Therefore, considering the importance of the issue, adopting an approach based on strategic planning and correct understanding of the strengths and weaknesses in the current situation and opportunities and threats related to the future ahead in order to have a low carbon city and plan for improvement and they can help realize the components of a low-carbon city in Sanandaj. The results also indicate that the development of accurate and strategic strategies in the direction of low carbon city can be achieved in the realization of a stable low carbon city in the form of low carbon environment, Low carbon society, low-carbon economy, low-carbon transportation, low-carbon urban development, and planning could be effective.