عنوان مقاله [English]
Housing indicators, as the main foundation of a comprehensive program and an essential tool for expressing various economic, social, cultural, environmental and physical dimensions of housing, have a special place in housing planning. Therefore, recognizing the status of appropriate housing indicators and trying to achieve the desired housing and reduce inequalities is considered important in the discussion of sustainable urban development. In this regard, the aim of the present study is to measure and analyze the physical characteristics of housing in the metropolis of Tehran with the approach of spatial justice. The research method is descriptive-analytical and its purpose is practical. To analyze the data, quantitative models of Shannon's entropy, TOPSIS, C.V scattering coefficient, Moran spatial self-correlation statistics and Arc GIS software were used. Findings from the study show that there is inequality within the region in having physical housing characteristics among the metropolitan areas of Tehran, so that the spatial distribution pattern of physical housing characteristics in the 22 regions The city of Tehran is in the form of a cluster, and regions 1, 3, and 2, with a score of 0.855, 0.447, and 0.385, respectively, are ranked 22nd among the 22 regions in terms of physical housing characteristics. First to third. On the other hand, Zone 21 is in the last place with the lowest amount of TOPSIS 0.038. Statistically, about 0.4 percent of the regions are in a privileged position, 0.23 percent are in a semi-privileged position, and 0.73 percent are in an inefficient position. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the inequality within the region and the gap between the regions of Tehran in terms of having physical housing characteristics.
Urbanization is a global phenomenon that is now being developed in the developing world as a fire in which the language is growing and expanding. Think of the city as a forest and urbanization as a fire. Now suppose the forest is set on fire and its flames are spreading instantaneously over the entire forest area and overwhelming it. In the meantime, short-term and temporary measures will not work. Towns and cities also follow this rule. As urbanization grows and expands day by day. The main reason for this trend is the increase in the population of cities, especially the dominant cities. Now this urbanization can be examined in different dimensions. One of these is "housing". As the urbanization speeds up, various problems arise in the housing sector. In the meantime, affordable housing is not only at the individual level, but also as a basic need that some people in the community do not have, or are exposed to, their housing crisis. Socio-economic and dissatisfaction resulting in popular protests, chaos, urban and political crises that affect the lives of all members of society. And it also challenges the legitimacy of governments. Meanwhile, analyzing whether or not people in a community have access to shelter and housing because of their basic human needs, disregard for housing and a lack of a systematic look at planning processes and policies for the housing system can lead to (multi-dimensional) inequality.
The method used in this study is descriptive-analytical and in terms of targeting strategy is applied. Libraries and documents (statistical yearbooks and statistics center) have also been used for data collection. The studied geographical area of Tehran metropolis and its 22 regions is based on the political divisions of 2016. In order to evaluate the urban areas of Tehran in terms of physical housing indices, 46 indices derived from general population and housing census results of 2016 were used. Shannon entropy techniques, TOPSIS multivariate decision making technique, dispersion coefficient (C.V) and spatial autocorrelation method (Moran's) in Arc Gis software were used for data analysis.
Zones 1, 3 and 2 were ranked first to third in terms of physical fitness indices, respectively, with TOPSIS score of 0.855, 0.447, and 0.385, respectively. On the other hand, Area 21 is in the last place with the lowest TOPSIS 0.038. These results suggest that spatial inequality exists in some of the studied indices among the 22 regions of Tehran. Statistically, about 0.4% of the areas are in the favorable condition, 0.23% are in the semi-favorable situation and 0.73% are in the poor situation. Geographically it can be said that some of the physical indicators of housing are decreasing and decreasing from north to south, east and west of Tehran.
The results of the scattering coefficient (c.v) model also confirm the findings of the TOPSIS model, which shows a deep gap between the 22 metropolitan areas of Tehran in terms of physical housing indices. These results indicate the imbalance and inequality of metropolitan areas in Tehran in terms of reflection, reflection and outcome indicators, political economy, land value, housing planning system failures and direct relationship with economic and social situation in the studied community.
These results make attention to the issue of spatial equity in the optimal accessibility and proper accessibility of different urban housing services which should be commensurate with different factors such as population. This can help planners to strengthen disadvantaged areas, reduce inequalities, citizens' satisfaction with physical conditions, and ultimately local stability. Since Tehran metropolis is exposed to natural disasters (earthquakes), contaminated and mountainous climatic conditions and burnout and demolition of housing in these conditions is inevitable and premature, so in order to be more in harmony with sustainability approach, attention should be paid to modernization. Worn and damaged tissues are a must. It is important to note that the results of this research in Tehran can help urban planners and officials in prioritizing urban development plans and housing planning for housing intervention.