عنوان مقاله [English]
Urban furniture is one of the constituent elements of urban spaces, and the quantity, quality, and beauty of true durability and its location play a very important role in achieving a beautiful and healthy city. Urban furniture is one the elements that have a lot of ability and capacity for the purposes of organizing the appearance and urban landscape. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of urban furniture elements on the appearance and landscape of Ahvaz metropolitan area 4 of the municipality, which has been done by descriptive-analytical method. Data collection was performed using both library and field methods of the questionnaire The statistical population of this study is Vandan city of Ahvaz municipality, region 4, 600 of which were selected using Cochran's formula. The researcher-made research questionnaire confirmed that its validity was confirmed by the content validity and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 80%. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software and regression test.The results showed that urban furniture has a significant impact on the appearance and landscape of the city at the level of 0/000. Also, this has been able to affect the appearance and landscape of the city among other variables of urban furniture (location, design, equipment, construction, etc.) at a significant level of 0/000 Based on this, it can be stated that education, supervision, care, changes and attention to cultural, natural, environmental, executive and functional factors can pave the way for the systematic structure of urban furniture in the fourth district of Ahvaz.
Urban furniture is one of the building blocks of urban spaces which their quantity, quality, beautiful city, durability and location play important role in achieving a beautiful and healthy city (Moshiri et al, 2013:85). Urban furniture has important role and favorable function in public spaces of the city for creating public health, social welfare, promoting cultural goals, educational and can take charge the interaction of people in the community. Therefore it is necessary to organize them (Shams& Moradi; 2014: 87). Urban furniture is one of the elements that have a lot of capacity in aims of city organization and urban landscape. Their most important function in the city are three goals of beautifying, identifying and reading the environment ( Ghafari Gilandeh et al, 2012:3).
Eliminate urban furniture from the urban structure or its disproportion can be the basis of inefficiency and disruption of the urban system 's functioning, leaves numerous human needs' unanswered, causes lack of peace of mind, visual disruption, insecurity (Agashteh, 2000:79). The importance and attention to urban furniture and adapting the urban environment to the presence of citizens in urban spaces is one of the challenges ahead in today's metropolises as Ahvaz. Now one of the problems of Ahvaz metropolis is lack of coordination of urban furniture with environmental architecture and lack of necessary connection between the components and elements of urban furniture.
So it is necessary to conduct this study in order to functional organization and aesthetics of the region furniture.The main perpose of this study is evaluating the effects of the urban furniture elements on the appearance and vision of Ahvaz city which was by examining the current situation of regional furniture with common standards, understanding the characteristics, dimensions and influential factors following the increase in vitality, identity, participation of citizens in urban space.
The main question and research hypotheses are as follows:
The main question;
Does the organization of urban furniture affect the appearance of Ahvaz city (four area)?
The main hypothesis;
organizing urban furniture has effect on the appearance of Ahvaz city (four area).
optimal location of Ahvaz urban furniture affects the satisfaction of citizens.
The design of construction and equipping suitable urban furniture has an effect on beautifying the appearance of Ahvaz city (four area).
Environmental factors affect the urban furniture of Ahvaz (four area).
The above study can be applied in terms of practical purpose and use descriptive-analytical research method. The statistical society of research were citizens of four area of Ahvaz city by numbers 210992 which their sample size, 383 people, were selected by using Cochran's formula and with accidental approach available. Narration of questionnaire questions were based on the validity of the content and their reliability were confirmed with Coronbach's alpha, 80%.The Collecting data was analyzed based on regression test in SPSS software, version 21. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests were used in this study. According to the census of 1395, Ahvaz metropolis had 1302591 population, it had eight municipal districts which its' four area with the extent of 3772 hectares was in the first place.
Results and discussion
In the descriptive finding section, the variable of age, education, gender and occupation were examined. The number of participants were 383 people that from among them 50/7 % were men and 49/3 % were women, from this number 60/3 % (231 people) had diploma and less than a diploma. Also in terms of age, the highest percentage belongs to the age group of 26-35 years with 33%. As well in terms of employment, the group of employees were in the highest with 39/2% (150 people).
Among the studied variables, citizens' satisfaction had the most standard deviation (9/70), also urban furniture had more scatter compared to other variables (7/99). But furniture design, construction and equipment indexes had the lowest standard deviation (1/37) and as a result they had the least scatter. In the inferential findings of the research with using nature tools, relevant goals and hypotheses, for investigating research hypotheses used Spearman correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon Test, non-linear regression.
In the main research hypotheses examined the effect of organizing urban furniture with the view of the city. According to the finding of the study with 99% confidence and less than 0.01% error, there is a relationship between the organization of urban furniture and appearance of the city, that is equal to 0.545 directly (positive) and moderate. This means that with the improvement of urban furniture the appearance of the city will increase to the moderate ratio.
In the first hypothesis of the research which studied the effect of the optimal location of urban furniture on citizens' satisfaction with 99% confidence and less than 0.01 error, there is relationship between location of urban furniture and citizens' satisfaction which according to calculated R, this relationship is equal to 0/751 directly(positive) and to some extent good. This means that the citizens' satisfaction will be increased by identifying the appropriate locations of suitable places for the components and elements of urban furniture. The value of correlation coefficient was 0/751 and correlation coefficient of correction was 0/563, therefore 56/3 % of the satisfaction variance of the citizens' area can be explained with the combination of optimal location.
In the second research hypothesis, has been discussed the effect of designing, the construction and equipping of suitable urban furniture in beautifying the landscape of the city which there were relationship between two variables according to the R calculated. This relationship was equal 0/699 directly (positively) and it is at the good level. This means that the appearance of the city was also improving with design, construction and equipment suitable urban furniture. The value of correlation coefficient was 0/699 and correlation coefficient of correction was 0.489. So 48/9 % of the beautification variance of appearance city can be explained with combination of design, construction and equipment of urban furniture.
In the third research hypothesis taken into consideration the relationship between environmental factors and urban furniture which with 99% of reliability and less than 0.01 error has been confirmed the relationship and its' effectiveness. On the other hand according to R calculated, this relationship was equal to 0/214 directly(positive) and somewhat weak. So environmental factors in four Region had very little effect.
It was determined in the above research that urban furniture had a significant effect 0.000 on the appearance of the city. This case was also among other variables of urban furniture (location, design, construction, equipment), inferential cultural factors, natural, technical, environmental at the significant level 0.000 had been able to influence the urban space of the region. The results of the finding of this study were consistent with the finding of Zangiabadi & Tabrizi (2008), Afrasiabi rad & Sabahi (2011), Teymurian&Zyvyar (2013), Moshiri et al(2014), Hanachi & Mojgani(2008), Hayati et al (2018).The result showed that in the urban furniture of the region had not received much attention to factors as location, proper access, climate condition, design standards, human scales, visual order. So the right choice of urban furniture elements fits to the citizens need and urban space cause the strengthening of the social interaction, identity improving, the quality of urban space, prevent vandalism, freshness, vitality, the readability of the city. Therefore, in this regard the following suggestions are presented:
Special attention should be paid to the role of Karun River as a natural identifying factor that plays an important role in organizing the appearance of the city and use water structures in the urban furniture of the area.
Pay attention in choosing, equipping and designing area furniture to climate factors especially the heat and fine dust (different cultural ethnicities and tribes).
The use of integrated furniture can save space, prevent visual disturbances, reduce urban management costs, citizens' psychological peace of mind and be effective in their better use.
Preparation of urban furniture certificate for different spaces can help urban management.
It is recommended to beautify the city view, pay attention to color map of the city according to the climate, culture, identity, people's tastes, use graphic works, color and light.
To reduce destructiveness of urban furniture in regional furniture use of hard and durable materials, protective interpretations in design and construction, continuous care and modification in order to prevent environmental disturbance, culture building and encouraging public oversight is necessary.
Creativity in the design of urban furniture is an important issue that should be considered by designers, because urban furniture users are from different age and gender groups of the society who according their needs have different physical and mental expectation of this product.
Establishment of perspective committee in the province's engineering system organization.