تحلیلی بر علل گرایش به اقتصاد غیررسمی در شهرهای مرزی با تأکید بر اشتغال کولبری (مطالعه موردی: شهر سردشت)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو گروه ژئوپلتیک دانشگاه خوارزمی

2 کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری دانشگاه مراغه

3 باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد اسلامشهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اسلامشهر، ایران

چکیده

اقتصاد غیررسمی در کشورهای در حال توسعه همچون ایران نقش مهمی در تأمین نیازهای اقتصادی خانواده‌های کم‌درآمد دارد. یکی از مهمترین این مشاغل غیررسمی در شهرهای مرزی ایران اشتغال کولبری است. در حال حاضر با توجه به شرایط اقتصادی در شهر سردشت کولبری به‌عنوان شغل اکثریت مردم فقیر این شهر در حال افزایش است. پژوهش حاضر به بررسی و تحلیل علل اقتصادی گرایش مردمان شهر سردشت به اشتغال کولبری می‌پردازد. نوع تحقیق حاضر، کاربردی و روش پژوهش توصیفی – تحلیلی است. برای گردآوری اطلاعات و داده‌ها از روش‌های کتابخانه‌ای، منابع الکترونیکی و مطالعات میدانی مصاحبه و پرسشنامه محقق‌ساخته استفاده شده است. تعدا 160 نفر از کولبران شهر سردشت بر اساس نمونه‌گیری گلوله برفی به‌عنوان نمونه پژوهش انتخاب شدند. تجزیه و تحلیل یافته‌ها از طریق نرم‌افزار SPSS 26 و با استفاده از درصد و فراوانی و آزمون خی دو و پایایی پرسشنامه با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ (مقدار 0.70) صورت گرفت. نتایج حاصل از آزمون خی دو حاکی از آن است که بین علت اشتغال به کولبری و متغیرهای؛ جنسیت، محل تولد، علت مهاجرت به شهر، تعداد اعضای خانوار، سطح تحصیلات، نوع کالاهای که عمدتاً حمل شده، مخارج ماهیانه، طریقه آشنایی و ورود به شغل کولبری و نوسانات درآمدی شغل کولبری در فصول مختلف رابطه‌ی معناداری وجود ندارد. اما بین علت گرایش به کولبری و سن، شغل قبلی همچنین متغیرهای؛ وضعیت تأهل، حقوق ماهیانه، منبع درآمدی دوم و جدای از کولبری، شغل آتی، امنیت شغلی، رضایت شغلی و مدت اشتغال به کولبری با علل گرایش به کولبری رابطه‌ی معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین نتایج حاصل از رگرسیون خطی چند متغیره نشان می‌دهد که 35 درصد از تغییرات متغیر وابسته ناشی از متغیرهای مستقلی است که وارد مدل نهایی تحلیل شده-اند و مقدار آزمون برای تعیین معناداری اثر متغیرهای مستقل بر میزان علل گرایش به اشتغال کولبری 000/0 با سطح معنی‌داری 95/0 است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An analysis of the causes of the tendency towards informal economy in border cities with emphasis on Coolbury employment (Case study: Sardasht city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Afshin Mottaghi 1
  • Mahtab Amraie 2
  • arash ghorbani sepehr 3
1 Geoghrafi
2 Master of Urban Planning, University of Maragheh
3 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad university, Islamshahr, Iran
چکیده [English]

One of the most important of these informal jobs in the border cities of Iran is the employment of Colbury. At present, Due to economic conditions in the city of Sardasht, Kolbari is increasing as the job of the majority of the poor people in this city.Therefore, in this study, the economic causes of the tendency of the people of Sardasht city to working of Colbury were studied and analyzed. The type of present research is applied and the research method is descriptive-analytical.To collect information and data, library methods, electronic resources and field studies of interviews and questionnaires were used.The number of 160 Colbranes in Sardasht was selected based on snowball sampling.The findings were analyzed using SPSS 26 software using percentage and frequency and chi-square test and questionnaire reliability using Cronbach's alpha (0.70).The results of the Chi-square test show that between the reason for employment in Colbury and the variables: gender, place of birth, the reason for migrating to the city, the number of family members, the level of education, the type of goods mainly transported, monthly expenses, dating and entry There is no significant relationship between Colbury's job and Colbury's income fluctuations in different seasons.But there is a significant relationship between the cause of the tendency to Colbury and age, previous occupation as well as variables; marital status, monthly salary, second source of income and apart from Colbury, future employment, job security, job satisfaction and duration of employment with Colbury. Also, the results of multivariate linear regression show that 35% of the changes in the dependent variable are due to the independent variables that have entered the final analysis model and the test value to determine the significance of the effect of independent variables on the causes of Colbury's employment tendency. The significance level is 0.95.
 
Extended abstract
Introduction:
          Due to economic conditions in the city of Sardasht, Kolbari is increasing as the job of the majority of the poor people in this city (Khezrpour et al, 2018: 39) .Limited agricultural land, lack of industry, poverty, lack of sufficient skills and in many cases lack of sufficient facilities to acquire skills, unemployment of educated people, natural conditions and mountainous location of Sardasht city, lack of government facilities to create employment for the city's youth, the remaining damage The war in Sardasht city, the lack of suitable programs for economic growth in Sardasht city, etc. are among the factors that lead to the unofficial employment of Colbury in this city.Therefore, due to the importance of colbari employment in Sardasht city, which was previously thought to exist only in the border villages of this city, but today a large number of colbranes are from Sardasht city itself and also very limited research to date. This type of employment is paid for, and given the hidden economic dimensions of this type of employment that meets the living needs of the border areas of Sardasht.In this research, an attempt has been made to study and analyze the economic causes of the tendency of the people of Sardasht to the informal employment of Colbury with a thoughtful look and in a new way.
Methodology:
       The type of research is applied and the research method is descriptive-analytical. To collect information and data, library methods, search in electronic databases, as well as field studies, interviews and a researcher-made questionnaire have been used. The statistical population of the present study is Kolbaran of Sardasht city. To determine the sample size, 160 people from Sardasht city were selected based on snowball sampling. SPSS 26 software was used to analyze the findings. To investigate the characteristics of Colbran from descriptive statistics (percentage, frequency) and to examine the relationship between Colbran's characteristics and tendency to Colbury's job from inferential statistics (Khy 2 test) and to determine the tendency to Colbury's employment in Sardasht based on variables independent of linear regression Multiple used. Cronbach's alpha was used to measure the reliability of the questionnaire. Alpha value 0.70, which indicates an acceptable amount.
Results:
       The results of the descriptive statistics show that men and the age group between 20 and 29 years old had a higher percentage than other age and sex groups in the sample.And a high percentage had undergraduate education and previous jobs of exemplary people and the reason for the tendency of exemplary people to work for Colbury was more unemployment.
The results of inferential statistics show that between the reason for employment in Colbury and variables; gender, place of birth, the reason for migrating to the city, the number of family members, level of education, type of goods mainly transported, monthly expenses, method of acquaintance and entry Colbury's job and income fluctuations Colbury's job In different seasons, there is no significant relationship between the mentioned variables and the reason for the tendency to Colbury.The results also show that between the cause of the tendency to Colbury and age, the previous job also has variables: marital status, monthly salary, and second source of income and apart from Colbury, future job, job security, job satisfaction and employment time to Colbury a significant relationship. There is a difference between the previous job and the mentioned variables. Also, the results of multivariate linear regression show that 35% of the changes in the dependent variable (economic causes of Kolbari employment trend in Sardasht city) are due to the independent variables that have entered the final analyzed model.
Conclusion:      
 
Considering the importance of Colbury's employment in Sardasht city, in this study, the economic causes of Sardasht people's tendency to informal employment were examined and analyzed.The results show that men have a higher percentage than women in the sample. And the reason for the tendency of exemplary people to work for Colbury is mostly unemployment. The final results of the data analysis show that between the cause of employment in Colbury and variables; There is no significant relationship between gender, place of birth, the reason for migrating to the city, the number of family members, and so on. But between the cause of the tendency to Colbury and age, the previous job also has variables; there is a significant relationship between marital status, monthly salary, second source of income, and so on.Also, the results of multivariate linear regression show that 35% of the dependent variable changes are due to independent variables that have entered the final analyzed model.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Informal Working
  • border city
  • Coolbury
  • Sardasht
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