تحلیل اهمیت – عملکرد شاخص‌های حکمروایی خوب در شهر میراث جهانی یزد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو دکتری، جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

2 هیات علمی دانشگاه یزد

3 کارشناسی ارشد، جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه مازندران

چکیده

   در هر جامعه­ای هنگام جست و جو برای راه حل توسعه پایدار، همواره حکمروایی خوب به عنوان یک ابزار حیاتی برای پیشبرد توسعه پایدار مطرح می­گردد و به صورت یک عنصر حیاتی در استراتژی­های توسعه پایدار گنجانیده شده است. در همین راستا و به منظور ایجاد بستر مناسب توسعه گردشگری به ویژه در شهرهای مقصد گردشگری، حکمروایی خوب شهری و نزدیک شدن به شاخص­های آن ضرورتی اساسی است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش نیز بررسی میزان اهمیت و عملکرد هر یک از شاخص­های حکمروایی خوب در شهر میراث جهانی یزد است. تا از این طریق از یک سو به مهم­ترین و کم اهمیت­ترین شاخص­ها پی برد و از سوی دیگر میزان عملکرد هر یک از شاخص­ها تعیین شود تا کمبودها مورد توجه قرار گیرد و برنامه­ریزی­هایی جهت ارتقاء شرایط انجام شود. پژوهش حاضر، از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش در زمره پژوهش­های توصیفی -  پیمایشی است. به منظور گردآوری داده­ها از روش کتابخانه­ای و روش­های میدانی شامل مصاحبه و پرسشنامه استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری کارشناسانی است که تحصیلات دانشگاهی دکتری در رشته­های مرتبط با امور شهری دارند. جهت نمونه­گیری از بین کارشناسان از روش نمونه­گیری قضاوتی که یکی از شیوه­های نمونه­گیری هدفمند است استفاده شده است. برای تحلیل داده­ها نیز از روش IPA[1] بهره گرفته شده است. یافته­های پژوهش نشان می­دهد از بعد اهمیت، مشارکت با میانگین  00/7، پاسخگویی و عدالت با میانگین 60/6 با اهمیت­ترین و شاخص­های اجماع­سازی با میانگین 80/3، شفافیت و تمرکززدایی با میانگین 00/4 کم اهمیت­ترین شاخص­ها شناخته شده­است. از طرفی از نظر میزان عملکرد شاخص اثربخشی و کارایی با میانگین 60/6 بیشترین عملکرد و مشارکت با میانگین 80/3، پاسخگویی، مسئولیت­پذیری و امنیت با میانگین 20/4 کمترین عملکرد را به خود اختصاص داده است از طرفی با توجه به نتایج آزمون t همبسته و با عنایت به اینکه مقدار Sig (سطح معناداری) در همه شاخص­ها برابر با صفر و کمتر از 05/0 است لذا تفاوت میانگین­ها در همه شاخص­ها از سطح معناداری برخوردارند و از سویی نتیجه رابطه (P-I) نیز در اکثر شاخص­ها منفی شده است که این نشان دهنده فاصله همه شاخص­ها از وضعیت ایده­ال است.



[1] Impornace – Performance Analysis

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Importance Analysis - Performance of Good Governance Indicators in Yazd World Heritage City

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahbobeh nori 1
  • mohammad reza rezaaei 2
  • mansooreh yarahmadi 3
1 PhD student, Geography and Urban Planning, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
2 yazd
3 M.Sc., Geography and Urban Planning, University of Mazandaran
چکیده [English]

In any society, when looking for a sustainable development solution, good governance is always seen as a vital tool for promoting sustainable development, and has been incorporated as a vital element in sustainable development strategies. In this regard, in order to provide a suitable context for tourism development, especially in the cities of tourism destination, good urban governance and approach to its indicators is essential. Libraries and field methods including interviews and questionnaires were used for data collection. The statistical population is experts who hold doctoral degrees in urban affairs. Judicial sampling is one of the methods of purposeful sampling among the experts. IPA has also been used to analyze the data. The findings show that in terms of importance, participation with mean of 7.00, accountability and justice with mean of 6.60, and consensus indices with mean of 3.80, transparency and decentralization with mean of 00 / 4 The least important indicators are known. On the other hand, in terms of performance level of effectiveness and efficiency index with average of 6.60 highest performance and participation with average of 3.80, accountability, responsibility and security with average of 4.20 has the lowest performance. The results of the t-test were correlated with the Sig (significance level) in all indices being equal to zero and less than 0.05, so the mean differences in all indices had a significant level. PI) is negative for most indicators as well, indicating that all indicators are far from ideal.
Extended Abstract
Introduction
The process of rapid urban development has had many economic and social consequences for developing countries. Among the various approaches proposed in the field of urban management, good urban governance is one of the most important approaches. Nowadays, this model is considered the only way to get out of the stalemate of poverty and underdevelopment of cities in international forums and among experts. So now the approach that is being introduced as the most effective, least costly, and most sustainable way to implement urban management is good urban governance. Thus, it is now accepted in the world that sustainable urban development is achieved if the goals of democracy, equality in service and environmental protection are combined with the formation of good urban governance. On the other hand, due to the growing importance of tourism and the competitiveness of the tourism market around the world, tourism destinations are increasingly competing with each other to attract tourists and trying to increase their share of the industry and its revenues. Meanwhile, studies show that the phenomenon of tourism, while being influenced by the rules of governance, also affects the realization of governance. Yazd city, as the largest and most important tourism area in Iran, should provide all its citizens and activists in this field with the aim of providing a platform for any tourism activity and a platform for participatory space and sustainable investment in the tourism economy and by providing a model for assessing good governance in urban tourism policy, should try to develop sustainable development and urban income and provide better services to tourists. Therefore, in this research, the main goal is to identify and analyze the importance - performance of good urban governance indicators in the historical and touristic city of Yazd.
Methodology
The present study is applied in terms of purpose and is in the category of descriptive-survey research. Library methods and field methods, including interviews and questionnaires, have been used to collect data. The questionnaire was designed based on 10 main indicators of governance in order to measure the importance of each of the indicators and their performance with a 9-point Likert scale. The statistical population is experts whose workplace or residence is in Yazd city. For sampling among experts, the method of judgment sampling, which is one of the methods of purposive sampling, has been used. In this study, in order to provide a questionnaire to experts in the importance-performance model, 50 experts were identified and questioned, and finally the data collected by the importance-performance model (IPA) were analyzed.
Results and discussion
In line with the main purpose of this study, which is to investigate the status of good governance indicators in the tourist city of Yazd, the World Heritage City, the results of the research according to the obtained averages show that in terms of importance, participation with an average of 7.00, accountability and Justice with an average of 6.60 is the most important indicator of good urban governance, and consensus indicators with an average of 3.80, transparency and decentralization with an average of 4.00 are considered the least important indicators. On the other hand, in terms of performance, each of the indicators should be noted that effectiveness and efficiency with an average of 6.60, the highest performance and participation with an average of 3.80, accountability, responsibility and security with an average of 4.20, have the lowest performance. On the other hand, among the ten indicators examined, two indicators of participation and accountability are in the weak area, i.e. despite the high importance of the index, it has low performance, which is a priority for corrective action and improvement in the system weaknesses. The indicators of effectiveness - efficiency, justice and security are in the acceptable range, which indicates the importance and high performance and indicates that the indicators in this area are relatively favorable and this situation should be kept on. The indicators of responsibility and decentralization are in the area of indifference, both of which are low in importance and performance, but these indicators are not a threat to the system.
 
Conclusion
Considering that Yazd city, as the first brick city and the second historical city in the world, welcomes a large number of domestic and foreign tourists every year, but in the field of implementing the indicators of favorable governance in tourism, appropriate policies and actions have not been taken so far. So there is a long way to achieve these indicators in Yazd, while economic prosperity and the participation of managers in this field will lead to economic prosperity in other urban sectors and sustainable economic development.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • good governance
  • Tourist Cities
  • Importance - Performance (IPA)
  • Yazd World Heritage City
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