تحلیل ساختاری-کارکردی مورفولوژی شهری تحت تاثیر رانت حاصل از اقتصاد نفتی (مطالعه موردی: شهر زنجان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله برگرفته از پایان نامه

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه ازاد تبریز-گروه شهرسازی

2 استادیار گروه معماری و شهرسازی، واحد تبریز دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

برنامه ریزی اقتصادی مبتنی بر نفت یکی از عوامل اساسی است که مکانیزم ها و مناسبات اقتصادی و کالبدی شهری را متأثر می سازد. این شیوه مدیریت فضا ممکن است منجر به افزایش فعالیت های سوداگرانه، عدم تخصیص بهینه منابع، و بی توجهی به ابعاد اجتماعی-فرهنگی، و نگاه صرفا کالبدی و کارکردگرایانه به فضای شهری و مورفولوژی حاصل از آن می گردد. این مقاله با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی، بدنبال بررسی میزان تاثیر اقتصاد رانتی در تحولات مورفولوژیکی شهر زنجان است. گردآوری اطلاعات با مطالعات میدانی و کتابخانه ای انجام شد. جامعه آماری با روش کوکران 384 نمونه است. برای تحلیل داده از آزمون تک نمونه ایT، فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی(AHP) و رویکرد تحلیل اثرات متقابل تعاملی با نرم افزار SPSS، Expert Choice و Scenario Wizard استفاده شد. یافته ها نشان داد که اقتصاد نفتی در مدیریت متمرکز کشور و تاثیر آن در شهر زنجان در قالب تغییرات کاربری اراضی، نابرابری اقتصادی-اجتماعی؛ و عدم تعادل فضایی، منجر به شکل گیری مورفولوژی شهری ناپایدار شده است. موید این مطلب، ضریب وزنی شاخص های موثر بر تحولات مورفولوژی شهر زنجان برابر 06/24= tبا آزمون T است. و شاخص کالبدی با امتیاز (53/25 = t) بیشترین تاثیرپذیری را داشته است. با استفاده از رویکرد اثرات متقابل تعاملی، سناریوی سوم با ضریب تاثیر17 و ارزش ثبات1، با تاکید بر شاخص خیابان بندی شهری؛ نابرابری فضایی؛ تسهیلات دولت طبق نیاز شهروندان؛ سرمایه گذاری دولت در توسعه کالبدی شهر و وجود کاربریهای ناسازگار، بمنظور تحولات سازنده مورفولوژی شهری انتخاب شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Structural-functional analysis of urban morphology under the influence of rents from the oil economy (Case Study: Zanjan City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad hosein Jafari pabandi 1
  • Rasoul Darskhan 2
  • Mirsaead Mousavi 2
1 Tabriz Azad University-Department of Urban Planning
2 Tabriz, Islamic Azad University, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning
چکیده [English]

Oil-based economic planning is one of the key factors influencing urban economic and physical mechanisms and relationships. This way of managing space may lead to increased business activities, lack of optimal allocation of resources, and disregard for socio-cultural dimensions, and a purely physical and functionalist view of urban space and the resulting morphology. This descriptive-analytical study aims to investigate the impact of rent economy on morphological changes in Zanjan. Data collection was done through field and library studies. The whole city of Zanjan with a population of 430871 has a statistical population. By Cochran method, 384 samples were selected. For analysis, one-sample T-test, Hierarchical Analysis Process (AHP), and interactive interaction analysis approach were used with SPSS, Expert Choice and Scenario Wizard software. The findings showed that the oil economy in the centralized management of the country and its impact on the city of Zanjan in the form of land use changes, socio-economic inequality; and spatial imbalance, has led to the formation of unstable urban morphology. To confirm this, the weighted coefficient of the indicators affecting the morphological developments of Zanjan city is equal to 24.06 = t with the T test. And the physical index with the score (25.53 = t) had the most impact. With using the interactive interaction approach, the third scenario with a total impact factor of 17 and an equal stability value of 1 with emphasis on street indexing and urban skeleton; spatial inequality; government facilities according to citizens' needs; And the existence of maladaptive and intrusive applications has been chosen as the optimal scenario for constructive transformations of urban morphology.
Extended Abstract
Introduction: Oil-based economic planning is one of the key factors influencing urban economic and physical mechanisms and relationships. This way of managing space may lead to increased business activities, lack of optimal allocation of resources, and disregard for socio-cultural dimensions, and a purely physical and functionalist view of urban space and the resulting morphology. In general, wealth in the rentier economy is available to a small number of people in urban areas, and economic rents also lead to the country's political deviance. Today, central cities have not only become a space for political power, but have become the center of all economic activity. However, the negative economic consequences of rent can be read in the form of land use changes, economic and social inequalities in space, and spatial imbalances, which ultimately lead to the formation of unstable urban morphology. In the long run, this will lead to the inefficiency of the city in providing services to the citizens and even playing the role of the political center of the province.
Methodology: This descriptive-analytical study aims to investigate the impact of rent economy on morphological changes in Zanjan. Data collection was done through field and library studies. The statistical population includes the population of Zanjan city is 430871 people. Therefore, this group was selected as a statistical sample by 384 Cochran sampling method. To analyze the data, first, the status of research indicators in relation to the structural-functional conditions of the city's morphology was examined using a single T-sample test. And the generalization rate of the indicators was determined. Then, using the hierarchical analysis process (AHP), the main and influential indicators on urban morphological developments were identified in the form of reciprocal effects analysis model. Finally, with the approach of interactive interactions and with the help of Scenario Wizard software, morphological improvement strategies were analyzed. It should be noted that the data analysis was performed using Excel, SPSS, Expert Choice and Scenario Wizard software.
Results and discussion: An examination of the morphological status of Zanjan city under the influence of rent-based oil economy showed that the status of the indicators affecting the morphological developments of Zanjan city is equal to 3.31 with a score (t = 24.06). And the physical index with a score of (t = 25.53) is the most desirable and the index of "government performance" with a score (t = -20.45) is the weakest indicator in the morphological developments of Zanjan city. In other words, urban managers and the performance of government agencies in space management have failed to meet the needs and morphological changes of the city due to the lack of capacity to meet economic needs and create a favorable environment. In this regard, Eun et al. (2017) believed that rent determines the shape of land development. In contrast, Castango (2015) argues that the principle of public participation can reduce the effects of rent and the influence of capitalism on the production of space and urban morphology. As a result, space management based on the oil economy and the resulting rent is one of the main factors shaping urban morphology, especially in the physical dimension. In addition, the hierarchical analysis process (AHP) as a pairwise comparison showed that for the desired morphological developments in Zanjan and the reduction of the impact of the oil economy and moving towards a political economy structure based on production and value added, attention to indicators The need for citizens; spatial inequality; adaptation of morphology to the city's indigenous identity; hierarchy of network of passages; government facilities according to the needs of citizens; inconsistent and disturbing uses; Because weakening or strengthening the above indicators in Zanjan can guarantee the future of life and physical well-being of residents and optimal and optimal management of space. On the other hand, using an interactive interaction approach, the third scenario with a total impact factor of 17, as the main research strategy, on the components of street and urban skeleton (physical); spatial (social) inequality; government facilities according to citizens' needs (Economic); Government investment emphasizes the physical development of the city (government performance); and the transfer and management of inconsistent and disturbing land uses (environment). In this regard, Young et al (2014) emphasized the strategy of economic clusters in shaping urban spatial structure and morphology; Namvar Haghighi et al. (2009) also emphasized the internal policies of land management and land reclamation management in improving urban morphology. On the other hand,  Mard Ali et al (2014) also emphasized urban morphology. As a result, it must be said that in order to control the rent generated by the oil economy and to improve the urban morphology, the economic infrastructure and internal development capacities of the city must be emphasized.
Conclusion: Analysis of the findings showed that the study of the impact of political economy in the form of oil-based centralized planning on urban morphology requires knowledge of the spatial structure and characteristics of an urban area, by examining the pattern of components and development of these areas. There are different scales as well as patterns of movement, land use, ownership and employment. On the other hand, improving the structure of space management, and moving towards the desired urban morphology, requires attention to all aspects of urban life and management. In this regard, to improve urban morphology, physical development, transfer and proper placement of land uses incompatible with urban function and also pay attention to spatial justice, can play a significant role in structural-functional improvement of urban morphology. Considering what has been mentioned in theoretical discussions and field studies, in order to improve the structural-functional economy and urban management and move towards the desired changes in urban morphology, it seems necessary to observe the following:

Increase per capita public usage
Transfer incompatible land uses outside the city limits
Regulating the urban road network and increasing the capacity of the road network
Distribution of commercial nuclei and urban activity to different locations in order to change transportation routes from the central loop
Arranging the façade of buildings and the architecture of the building (landscape quality)

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Economy
  • Rent
  • Oil Economy
  • Urban Morphology
  • Zanjan
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