عنوان مقاله [English]
Today’s, in the process of urban decay regeneration, historic districts are emphasized as the manifestation of economic, social dimensions, and the crystallization of culture and urban identity, based on which identifying the scope of these districts is the first step to regeneration and preserve them. It is also one of the challenges of urban management and those in charge of affairs in Iran. As such, this paper aims to identify the range of historical district of Jahrom city, through a descriptive-analytical approach and utilizing documentary sources and libraries, the necessary indicators (19 indicators) are gathered in the terms of economic, social, physical-spatial dimensions, and historic. Then, these indicators were investigated using a spatial analysis approach by combining two models of analytical network process (ANP) and Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (F-ANP) through ARC GIS software. The information required to quantify and evaluate the indicators are collected from some sources such as the official census in 2016, field perceptions, urban development plans, the extracted, and the weighted indicators in the developed model, by surveying the experts, city managers, and researchers. Ultimately, this paper introduced the historic district of Jahrom in two zones. In this way, some indicators (1) the existence of primary market core via weight of 0.146, and (2) the existence of recorded historic monuments with weight of 0.133, obtain the highest scores to determine the historic district of Jahrom. Moreover, the importance of the proposed dimensions has simultaneously been emphasized such as the historical, physical-spatial, economic, and social dimensions, respectively.
Today, in the discussion of urban regeneration, historical textures manifest economic, social, and cultural aspects of cities. The first step in regeneration and preservation of these textures is to determine their scope. This is a major challenge facing urban management authorities in Iran, and the city of Jahrom is no exception in this respect. The formation of this city dates back to the Sassanid period. Despite the existence of several historical signs and monuments, this city has been subject to significant social, economic, and physical changes made without any specific plan. In order to compile a development plan for this texture, authorities need to recognize its contemporary social, economic, and physical characteristics, specify its historical intangible heritages, and define its boundaries. Currently, urban management and especially municipality authorities of Jahrom (and those of other Iranian cities) determine the scope of historical textures based on the approvals of the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization. However, authorities of this organization have inadequate theoretical and practical understanding of evaluation and measurement indicators required for identification of historical textures, and the only indicator they use is the existence of valuable historical monuments. This study aimed to answer these questions: where is the historical texture of Jahrom located? and what indicators can be used to specify the scope of this texture? Following the literature review, the authors reviewed the structural features and developments of the study area, and specified 19 indicators within 4 dimensions (including social, economic, historical and physical dimensions) for identification of historical textures. Finally, the fuzzy analytic network process (FANP) model was used in ArcGIS to locate the historical textures of the city of Jahrom. It will be provided to urban management authorities in order to develop proper intervention plans in future.
This analytical-descriptive study aimed to determine the scope of historical areas of Jahrom, Iran. To this end, following the literature review, relevant measurable indicators specifying historical textures were extracted. The indicators were then re-examined based on the current situation of the city and access to information in order to generate 18 specific indicators used for spatial analysis of the city. The data were collected using information provided in the latest National Census of Population and Housing (2106), as well as urban development plans and field works. Expert opinions (questionnaires) were used to prioritize the identified indicators. The final data were analyzed using FANP model in ArcGIS. First, the data collected based on expert opinions (scores given to different indicators) were analyzed and weighted using the analytic network process (ANP). These weights were then stabilized using FANP. Finally, the layers were overlaid in ArcGIS using the fuzzy overlay tool to determine the historical parts of the city.
Results and discussion
After categorizing the indicators into social, economic, historical and physical indicators, the layers associated with each indicator were converted to raster data. The Euclidean distance function was used to convert the data into raster data. Using Fuzzy Membershship analysis, Spatial Analyst Tools were applied to draw fuzzy maps in ArcGIS 10.5. Questionnaires were completed by the expert panel (urban managers, professors, and experts). The low inconsistency rates obtained for the expert opinions (< 0.1) confirmed the validity of the data. The historical parts of Jahrom were specified in two zones. The two indicators of “existence of the primary core of the market (weight: 0.146)” and “existence of registered historical monuments (weight: 0.133)” were identified as the most important indicators. The most important aspects were historical, physical-spatial, economic, and social aspects, respectively; however, authorities need to simultaneously pay attention to all these aspects. Finally, the obtained weights were applied to relevant maps and layers in Map-Algebra module using ANP model.
Due to the 40% effect of the primary core of the market on the research model, the identified area was located at the central texture of the city (or at the city market). Despite the common characteristics of historical parts of many cities, several characteristics distinguish historical parts of cities from each other. Therefore, regarding the complex nature of these historical parts, different approaches must be adopted to determine the scope of these areas. Due to some limitations, indicators such as local and cultural rituals and ceremonies, type of clothing, language and dialect, religion, local foods, living status, type of household, housing patterns, etc., which are intangible heritages of residents were not included in this study. Future studies can focus on these indicators in order to identify historical textures and make necessary regeneration interventions with a comprehensive perspective. The obtained maps can be expanded through mental and intangible indicators and examined in future research. In addition, the determined scope guides urban management and cultural heritage authorities to develop appropriate regeneration and preservation plans.
Unfortunately, today, urban management authorities practice in accordance with available textbooks in which old areas without registered historical monuments are regarded as worn-out textures and are therefore destroyed, even though these places may possess other historical and intangible qualities. This inflicts irreparable damages on historical identity and authenticity of cities. According to the present findings, considering the numerous historical qualities and unique indicators of Jahrom, this city is seriously exposed to various urban damages; therefore, urban managers need to develop appropriate urban regeneration and management plans to prevent such destructions