عنوان مقاله [English]
Providing pedestrian movement in the city and creating suitable urban spaces for the presence of people in the urban environment, has led to the design of new trends and perspectives in the field of urban planning and architecture in the world. In fact, we are considering an approach that expands urban spaces to revive the presence and participation of citizens in the public sphere of the city.
Cities like Sanandaj, which have a long history of urbanization, are facing the problem of burnout and traffic due to the developments of modernity and mechanization, And they have the greatest need for this kind of changes and researches. Current study is applied type, And uses a descriptive-analytical method. The main goal is to select the appropriate axis using effective walkability criteria in Sanandaj city to become a walkable street. For this purpose, the favorable streets of Sanandaj were selected to become a walkable street. Then, according to experts and previous studies, three functional, socio-economic and socio-environmental components were selected and 19 characteristics were introduced for them. Via weighted Shannon's entropy model, And in this regard, TOPSIS was used as a multidisciplinary decision-making method.
From the research findings, the ranking of the selected streets has been obtained, according to which Imam Khomeini Street with a priority coefficient of 0.6589 as the best and Ferdowsi streets with a coefficient of 0.5466 and Enghelab with a coefficient of 0.3466 and Taleghani with a coefficient of 0.2828 as ranks were selected as the next rankings.
Finally, suggestions were made to increase the level of success and its realization in order to strengthen walkability in Imam Khomeini Street.
The advancement of technology with the emergence of devices such as automobiles and their damage has led to a decrease in the presence of people in urban spaces for shopping, entertainment, work and even social interactions (Hampton et al, 2015: 492). The dominance of buildings, industries and transportation and economic activities over time in the form of domination over the city, it causes widespread urban pollutions (badeiei et al, 2019: 76). By adapting the urban environment, all members of society, both healthy and disabled, will have access to the environment and urban elements and activities in various areas of life (Shamsedini & Nasibi, 2019: 87). Ancient and historical textures of cities that were once among the most prosperous and high-quality living textures, today, they are faced with the passage of time and the lack of proper care, And this has caused to reduce the quality of life in these tissues to their lowest level in recent years (Zare et al, 2019: 10). Sanandaj city has the existing potential, especially in its old texture, And it has the ability to pay special attention to walkability science, which has tried to choose the right axis. Objectives of this paper, first of all, dealing with the analytical method in order to provide walkable indicators, which it is possible to extract the required components. Then, according to the spatial structure of Sanandaj city, the right texture can be chosen, and the right axis can be chosen by offering walkability suggestions. In connection with these objectives, the following questions and hypotheses are raised:
1- What kind of components and indicators are appropriate in relation to walkability?
2- How to choose the best street for walkability among the selected streets?
In the meantime, it seems:
- Micro-functional, economic and social components play the most important role in the anthropocentric aspects of the streets.
- Issues such as the needs of the region, the damage of mechanization and the identity-making texture, play a role in choosing the old texture of Sanandaj. By choosing the streets, the TOPSIS technique is a proper method to choose the street for walkability.
The main core of traffic is in the center of the city and the heart of Sanandaj which is facing an increase in the number of vehicles.
According to the analysis, the old (central) texture of Sanandaj city was selected, And Ferdowsi, Enghelab, Imam Khomeini and Taleghani streets, which have all the capabilities for walkability, And the high share of users of this space in the present study has been studied.
Given the nature of the research and the goals considered, the research method is descriptive-analytical and survey. After collecting information through books, articles, publications, and field research, information was categorized in relation to walkability.
After investigating the Sanandaj city, textures and streets that are prone to walkability were selected. According to the category of studies, the indicators for the three functional, economic, and socio-environmental components were selected for four streets. Using the MADM multiple-attribute decision-making method, the options were ranked, And the two concepts of ideal solution and similarity to ideal solution have been used, After presenting Shannon's entropy method, And gain the weight of the indicators, Finally, after weight equalization the indicators, the streets were prioritized using the TOPSIS method.
Result and discussion
In this research, of the 19 criteria, other than X1, the rest are qualitative, And to select one of the 4 options is used, in this process, using the perspective of 28 reporters who are selected people from city managers, consulting engineers, contractors and university professors, the 9-point Likert spectrum method was used to convert qualitative decision criteria into quantitative criteria. According to the problem model, Introduced streets are considered as an option. The criteria obtained by the Shannon entropy method became a unscaled matrix. The degree of calculation deviation degree and the corresponding index, which was determined according to the measured values showed that there is a gap between the indicators, And provided useful information for decision making. The similarity index, which rating of alternatives for introduced streets formed by it, ranked the priority of Imam Khomeini, Ferdowsi, Enghelab, and Taleghani streets, respectively.
The final weight allocation to each of the criteria is based on the ability to perform this so that using this score, the ability to realize the difference in capabilities and potentials in the old texture of the city and consequently in the whole city was created. Using the TOPSIS method showed differences in the set goals, So that Imam Khomeini Street with a coefficient of 0.6589 has the best conditions and Taleghani Street with a coefficient of 0.2828 is in the weakest condition to become a walkability street, they are located in the central part of Sanandaj city. According to studies and analysis, you can say confidently that, the central tissue that has been selected as the appropriate tissue in this study, the central texture that has been selected as the appropriate tissue in this study is the best option for walkability in the whole city, As a result, Imam Khomeini Street was introduced as the most suitable street in Sanandaj as a walkable street. Ferdowsi street with a coefficient of 0.5466 and Enghelab street with a coefficient of 0.3466 are in the next ranks. These four streets are operate as an interconnected network, And all their motor and visual connections are interdependent, And they are overlapped. For this reason, any change in Imam Khomeini Street, which in this research is introduced as a pedestrian street, will be covered by other mentioned streets. Valuable land uses such as the Grand Mosque (Dar Al-Ehsan), the municipal building, the cultural heritage building, the Kurdish House (Safe), the historical context of Sartapooleh, the integration of new and old buildings, shops, commercial centers, administrative centers, educational centers and proximity to the market Traditions in this area can be suitable potential for action and walkability goals.