سطح بندی خیابان ها در فضای شهری با رویکرد ارتقاء پیاده مداری ، مورد پژوهی: شهر سنندج

نوع مقاله : مقاله برگرفته از پایان نامه

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، واحد یاسوج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، یاسوج، ایران

2 استادیار گروه شهرسازی / دانشکده هنر / دانشگاه تربیت مدرس / تهران / ایران

3 گروه معماری و منظر شهری/ جهاددانشگاهی/ تهران/ایران

چکیده

تامین حرکت پیاده در شهر و ایجاد فضاهای شهری مناسب برای حضور مردم در محیط شهری، موجب طرح گرایش‌ها و دیدگاه‌های جدیدی در عرصۀ شهرسازی و معماری جهان شده است. در واقع با رویکردی مواجهیم که به بسط و نشر فضاهای شهری برای احیای حضور و مشارکت شهروندان در عرصۀ عمومی شهر می‌اندیشد. شهرهائی چون سنندج که سابقۀ شهرنشینی طولانی دارند به دلیل تحولات مدرنیته و ماشینی شدن، دارای معضل فرسودگی و ترافیک هستند و بیشترین نیاز به این نوع تغییرات و پژوهش ها را دارند. پژوهش حاضر از نوع کاربردی بوده و از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی بهره می‌برد. هدف اصلی، انتخاب محور مناسب با استفاده از معیارهای موثر پیاده مداری در شهر سنندج، جهت تبدیل شدن به یک خیابان پیاده مدار است. بدین منظور خیابان‌های مستعد شهر سنندج جهت تبدیل شدن به یک خیابان پیاده مدار انتخاب گردید، سپس طبق دیدگاه صاحب نظران و مطالعات انجام شده قبلی سه مولفۀ عملکردی، اجتماعی- اقتصادی و اجتماعی- محیطی انتخاب و برای آنها 19 شاخصه معرفی گردید. از طریق مدل آنتروپی شانون وزن دهی شده و در این راستا، تاپسیس به عنوان روش تصمیم گیری چند شاخصه‌ای استفاده گردید. از یافته های پژوهش، رتبه بندی خیابان های منتخب حاصل شده است که براساس آن خیابان امام خمینی(ره) با ضریب اولویت 0.6589 به عنوان برترین و خیابان های فردوسی با ضریب 0.5466 و انقلاب با ضریب 0.3466 و طالقانی با ضریب 0.2828 به عنوان رتبه های بعدی انتخاب شدند. درنهایت برای بالا رفتن میزان موفقیت و تحقق آن جهت تقویت پیاده مداری در خیابان امام خمینی(ره) پیشنهاداتی ارائه گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Leveling of the streets in the urban space with walkability upgrade approach, Case Study: Sanandaj City

نویسندگان [English]

  • saba jahangir 1
  • hamidreza saremi 2
  • hosein kalantari khalilabad 3
1 Department of Architecture, Yasooj Branch, Islamic Azad university, Yasooj, Iran
2 assistant professor of urban planning / faculty of art / university of tarbitarmodares / tehran / iran
3 department of architecture/ tehran university/ tehran/ Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Providing pedestrian movement in the city and creating suitable urban spaces for the presence of people in the urban environment, has led to the design of new trends and perspectives in the field of urban planning and architecture in the world. In fact, we are considering an approach that expands urban spaces to revive the presence and participation of citizens in the public sphere of the city.
Cities like Sanandaj, which have a long history of urbanization, are facing the problem of burnout and traffic due to the developments of modernity and mechanization, And they have the greatest need for this kind of changes and researches. Current study is applied type, And uses a descriptive-analytical method. The main goal is to select the appropriate axis using effective walkability criteria in Sanandaj city to become a walkable street. For this purpose, the favorable streets of Sanandaj were selected to become a walkable street. Then, according to experts and previous studies, three functional, socio-economic and socio-environmental components were selected and 19 characteristics were introduced for them. Via weighted Shannon's entropy model, And in this regard, TOPSIS was used as a multidisciplinary decision-making method.
From the research findings, the ranking of the selected streets has been obtained, according to which Imam Khomeini Street with a priority coefficient of 0.6589 as the best and Ferdowsi streets with a coefficient of 0.5466 and Enghelab with a coefficient of 0.3466 and Taleghani with a coefficient of 0.2828 as ranks were selected as the next rankings.
Finally, suggestions were made to increase the level of success and its realization in order to strengthen walkability in Imam Khomeini Street.
Extended Abstract
 
Introduction
The advancement of technology with the emergence of devices such as automobiles and their damage has led to a decrease in the presence of people in urban spaces for shopping, entertainment, work and even social interactions (Hampton et al, 2015: 492). The dominance of buildings, industries and transportation and economic activities over time in the form of domination over the city, it causes widespread urban pollutions (badeiei et al, 2019: 76). By adapting the urban environment, all members of society, both healthy and disabled, will have access to the environment and urban elements and activities in various areas of life (Shamsedini & Nasibi, 2019: 87). Ancient and historical textures of cities that were once among the most prosperous and high-quality living textures, today, they are faced with the passage of time and the lack of proper care, And this has caused to reduce the quality of life in these tissues to their lowest level in recent years (Zare et al, 2019: 10). Sanandaj city has the existing potential, especially in its old texture, And it has the ability to pay special attention to walkability science, which has tried to choose the right axis. Objectives of this paper, first of all, dealing with the analytical method in order to provide walkable indicators, which it is possible to extract the required components. Then, according to the spatial structure of Sanandaj city, the right texture can be chosen, and the right axis can be chosen by offering walkability suggestions. In connection with these objectives, the following questions and hypotheses are raised:
1-      What kind of components and indicators are appropriate in relation to walkability?
2-      How to choose the best street for walkability among the selected streets?
In the meantime, it seems:
- Micro-functional, economic and social components play the most important role in the anthropocentric aspects of the streets.
- Issues such as the needs of the region, the damage of mechanization and the identity-making texture, play a role in choosing the old texture of Sanandaj. By choosing the streets, the TOPSIS technique is a proper method to choose the street for walkability.
The main core of traffic is in the center of the city and the heart of Sanandaj which is facing an increase in the number of vehicles.
According to the analysis, the old (central) texture of Sanandaj city was selected, And Ferdowsi, Enghelab, Imam Khomeini and Taleghani streets, which have all the capabilities for walkability,  And the high share of users of this space in the present study has been studied.
 
Methodology
Given the nature of the research and the goals considered, the research method is descriptive-analytical and survey. After collecting information through books, articles, publications, and field research, information was categorized in relation to walkability.
After investigating the Sanandaj city, textures and streets that are prone to walkability were selected. According to the category of studies, the indicators for the three functional, economic, and socio-environmental components were selected for four streets. Using the MADM multiple-attribute decision-making method, the options were ranked, And the two concepts of ideal solution and similarity to ideal solution have been used, After presenting Shannon's entropy method, And gain the weight of the indicators, Finally, after weight equalization the indicators, the streets were prioritized using the TOPSIS method.
 
Result and discussion
In this research, of the 19 criteria, other than X1, the rest are qualitative, And to select one of the 4 options is used, in this process, using the perspective of 28 reporters who are selected people from city managers, consulting engineers, contractors and university professors, the 9-point Likert spectrum method was used to convert qualitative decision criteria into quantitative criteria. According to the problem model, Introduced streets are considered as an option. The criteria obtained by the Shannon entropy method became a unscaled matrix. The degree of calculation deviation degree and the corresponding index, which was determined according to the measured values showed that there is a gap between the indicators, And provided useful information for decision making. The similarity index, which rating of alternatives for introduced streets formed by it, ranked the priority of Imam Khomeini, Ferdowsi, Enghelab, and Taleghani streets, respectively.
 
Conclusion
The final weight allocation to each of the criteria is based on the ability to perform this so that using this score, the ability to realize the difference in capabilities and potentials in the old texture of the city and consequently in the whole city was created. Using the TOPSIS method showed differences in the set goals, So that Imam Khomeini Street with a coefficient of 0.6589 has the best conditions and Taleghani Street with a coefficient of 0.2828 is in the weakest condition to become a walkability street, they are located in the central part of Sanandaj city. According to studies and analysis, you can say confidently that, the central tissue that has been selected as the appropriate tissue in this study, the central texture that has been selected as the appropriate tissue in this study is the best option for walkability in the whole city, As a result, Imam Khomeini Street was introduced as the most suitable street in Sanandaj as a walkable street. Ferdowsi street with a coefficient of 0.5466 and Enghelab street with a coefficient of 0.3466 are in the next ranks. These four streets are operate as an interconnected network, And all their motor and visual connections are interdependent, And they are overlapped. For this reason, any change in Imam Khomeini Street, which in this research is introduced as a pedestrian street, will be covered by other mentioned streets. Valuable land uses such as the Grand Mosque (Dar Al-Ehsan), the municipal building, the cultural heritage building, the Kurdish House (Safe), the historical context of Sartapooleh, the integration of new and old buildings, shops, commercial centers, administrative centers, educational centers and proximity to the market Traditions in this area can be suitable potential for action and walkability goals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • walkability
  • street
  • old texture of Sanandaj
  • TOPSIS
  • principles and criteria
1)      Akbarzadehmoghadam, A. Ahmadi, H. and R. Azadeh, (2016): EVALUATION DESIRABILITY OF URBAN SIDEWALK BASED ON QUALITATIVE FACTORS CASE STUDY: ALAM AL-HODA SIDEWALK IN RASHT CITY, Journal of Research and Urban Planing, Marvdash, 7(25), pp: 125-140.
2)      Alizadehmoghadam, S. Zakerian, M. and B. Tashakori, (2018), REDESIGNING THE PEDESTRIAN PATH WITH THE APPROACH OF IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF PRESENCE OF CITIZENS A CASE STUDY: PAVEMENT OF FARROKHI STREET IN YAZD, Journal of Research and Urban Planing, 9(34), pp: 133-148.
3)      Badiei, L. Ezzatpanah, B. and A. Soltani, (2019): Explain and analyze THE DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN SUSTAINABILITYBASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENTS CASE STUDY OF SANANDAJ CITY, Journal of Urban research and planing, Marvdash, 10(24), pp: 75-86.
4)      Behzadfar, M. and P. Mahmoudikordestani, (2009): QUALITATIVE NORMS OF URBAN-ORIENTED URBAN DESIGN (FREEDOM-ORIENTED), Journal of Armanshahr, Tehran, No. 3, pp: 32-48.
5)      Duncan, D. T. Aldstadt, J. Whalen, J. Melly, S. J. & S. Gortmaker, (2011): VALIDATION OF WALK SCORE (R) FOR ESTIMATING NEIGHBORHOOD WALKABILITY: ANALYSIS OF FOUR US METROPOLITAN AREAS, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(11), pp: 160-179.
6)      Epliard, D. and M. lintel, (1969): Public Spaces of Urban Areas, Tehran university, Tehran.
7)      Ghalndarian, I. and M. Rafieian, (2018), EXPLAIN THE QUALITY MODEL OF THE INVIRONMENT IN RECREATING THE ISLAMIV CITY OF IRAN, Journal of  Studies of  Islamic Iranian City, 9(34), pp: 49-58.
8)      Gholami, Y. Shaterian, M. Beshagh, M. and M. Jahani, (2019), DETERMINING THE POTENTIALITY OF WALKABILITY PROJECTS ADMINISTRATING WITH AN EMPHASIS ON URBAN TRANSPORT INDEX CASE STUDY: IMAM KHOMEINI STREET IN DEZFUL, Journal of Spatial Planning, Tehran, 9(2), pp: 1-22.
9)      Ghorbanpour, M. (2018), EVALUATION OF THE COMPONENTS EFFECTING THE VITALITY OF URBAN PEDESTRIAN ROUTES CASE STUDY: ALAM AL-HODE SIDEWALK IN RASHT, Journal of  Human Resource Planning Studies, Tehran, 13(1), pp: 105-123.
10)  Haghbaian, R. and M. Shokouhibidhendi, (2019): A SYSTEMATIC STUDY PUBLIC LIFE IN URBAN SPACE CASE STUDY: THE 17TH SHAHRIVAR PEDESTRIAN WAY IN TEHRAN CITY, Journal of Manzar, No. 46, pp: 40-49.
11)  Hampton, K. Goulet, L.S. & G. Albanesius, (2015): CHANGE IN THE SOCIAL LIFE OF URBAN PUBLIC SPACES: THE RISE OF MOBILE PHONES AND WOMEN, AND THE DECLINE OF ALONENESS OVER 30 YEARS, Journal of Urban Studies , 52(8), pp: 489-504.
12)  J. Jacobs. (1961): THE DEATH AND LIFE OF GREA AMERICAN CITIES. Random House, New York.
13)  Kalantarikhalilabad, H. (2016): PEDESTRIAN DESIGN AND ITS IMPACT ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN HISTORICAL CONTEXTS OF CITIES, CASE STUDY TABRIZ PEDESTRIAN ROAD, Journal of  Iranian Architecture studies, Tehran, No. 9, pp: 159-174.
14)  Kashanijo. Kh. (2014), Paths From Design Fundamentals to Functional Features, Azarakhsh, Tehran.
15)  Khajeshokuhi, A. Abdollahzadeh, Gh. And M. madanlu, (2013): ANALYSING SUSTAINABILITY OF URBAN AREAS AND PRIORITIZING ITS DEVELOPMENT USING TOPSIS CASE STUDY OF GORGAN CITY, Journal of Urban structure and function studies, 1(4), PP: 99-118.
16)  Kheiradin, A. Abdollahzadeh, Gh. And M. Madanloujuibari, (2019): VERIFICATION  OF FAILURE COMPONENTS OF THE 17TH SHAHRIVAR PEDESTRIAN ZONE PROJECT IN TEHRAN, Journal of Bagh-e nazar, Tehran, No.81, pp: 51-60.
 
17)  King, K. (2013): NEIGHBORHOOD WALKABLE URBAN FROM AND C-REACTIVE PROTEIN, journal of Preventive medicine, 57(6), PP: 850-864.
18)  Linch, Q. (1958): City Shape Theory, Tehran university, Tehran.
19)  Modiri, A. (2008): LOCATION, Journal of City identity,Tehran, 2(2), pp: 69-79.
20)  Moeini, M. (2013): Walkability Cities, Azarakhsh, Tehran.
21)  Naderi, O. and M. Ebrahim, (2015): SCANNING OF SIDEWALKS AND URBAN PASSAGES WITH EMPHASIS ON THE APPLICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL GRAPHICS, Journal of Urban Management, Tehran, No. 41, pp: 49-66.
22)  Park, S. Deakin, E. & J.S. Lee, (2014): DEVELOPING PERCEPTION-BASED WALKABILITY INDEX TO TEST IMPACT OF MICRO-LEVEL WALKABILITY ON SUSTAINABLE MODE CHOICEDECISION, TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH RECORD, Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2464, PP: 126-134.
23)  Ramezani, H. and M. Dadgar, (2017): PATH ALIGNMENT BASED ON VOLUME OF PEDESTRIAN FLOW USING SPATIAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS, Journal of Studies of the Islamic Iranian City, Tehran, 7(28), pp: 35-51.
24)  Sadeghi, A. Dadgar, M. Purjafar, A. and N. efatian, (2017): PROVIDING AN OPTIMAL URBAN DESIGN PROCESS FOR PAVEMENTS THROUGH A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES CASE STUDY: BROADWAY AMERICA, GEORGE STREET AUSTRALIA, SAF STREET AND TREE BOULEVARD IRAN, Journal of Studies of the Islamic Iranian City, 8(29), pp: 21-36.
25)  Sarkhalili, E. Khanizadeh, M. and E. Gholami, (2015): ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF URBAN SIDEWALKS WITH EMPHASIS ON THE COMFORT OF PEDESTRIANS, Journals of Roud, 23(84), pp: 139-154.
26)  Shamsedini, A. and S. Nasibi, (2019), THE STUDY OF URBAN FURNITURE LAYOUT ON THE URBAN AREAS VITALITY CASE STUDY: THE WHOLE AREA OF SHIRAZ, Journal of Research and Urban Planing, Marvdasht, 10(37), PP: 83-96.
27)  Zare, A. Rezaie, M. and H. Laghaie, (2019): EXPLAINING THE EFFECTIVE FACTORS ON IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OF URBAN HISTORICAL FABRICS CASE STUDY: HISTORICAL FABRICS OF SHIRAZ, Journal of Research and Urban Planing, Marvdasht, 10(38), pp: 1-12.
28)  www.dana.ir, 1396/09/07. (1398/03/06)
29)  www.mehrnews.com, 1392/10/16. (1398/03/08)