شناسایی و اولویت بندی الزامات رضایتمندی گردشگران شهری از اقامتگاه‌های گردشگری با استفاده از مدل کانو-سروکوال (نمونه: هتل‌های سه ستاره شهر شیراز)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی،تهران، ایران

3 کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی توریسم، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

چکیده

         رضایتمندی گردشگران شامل کلیۀ تجاربی است که نسبت به مقصدی خاص در مدت اقامت به دست می­آورند و این احساسات و طرز تلقی­های مرتبط با ارائۀ خدمات و قیمت آنهاست. از نماگرهای مهم در ارزیابی توسعۀ گردشگری، رشد ظرفیت تأسیسات اقامتی و کیفیت آنها با رشد گردشگری، اعم از داخلی و بین­المللی، نسبت مستقیم دارد. در همین زمینه، هدف از انجام این پژوهش، ارزیابی میزان شکاف کیفیت خدمات ارائه شده در هتل­ها و مراکز اقامتی سه ستاره شیراز با استفاده از تفاوت بین ادراکات و انتظارات گردشگران از خدمات و همچنین اولویت­بندی و تقسیم بندی آنها بر اساس عناصر اساسی انگیزشی و عملکردی می­باشد. بدین منظور 200 نفر از گردشگرانی که هتل­های سه ستاره شهر شیراز را برای اقامت انتخاب کرده بودند به صورت تصادفی ساده انتخاب و پرسشنامه میان آنها توزیع و تکمیل گردید. روش پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی و نوع آن کاربردی-توسعه­ای و شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات به دو صورت اسنادی و پیمایشی انجام گرفته است. نتایج  پژوهش نشان می­دهد از میان 27 خدمات ارائه شده در هتل­ها 13 خدمت میان ادراکات گردشگران و میزان خدمات ارائه شده فاصله دارد. همچنین نتایج حاصل از مدل کانو نشان می­دهد که وجود دوربین های مدار بسته ی مرئی و نامرئی به منظور حفظ امنیت بیشتر میهمانان در هتل با ضریب رضایت 840/0 مهم ترین الزم اساسی، وجود انواع اتاق و انواع سوئیت جذاب و آرام با امکانات مطلوب و مناسب(سیستم گرمایشی و سرمایشی) با ضریب رضایت 965/0مهم ترین الزام عملکردی و وجود تخت تشک و متکای راحت و تمیز با ضریب رضایت800/0 مهم ترین الزام انگیزشی می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification and prioritizing the satisfaction requirements of urban tourists from tourist resorts using the Kano-Servqual model. Case study of three star hotels in Shiraz

نویسندگان [English]

  • ahadollah fatahi 1
  • sadrolah godarzi 2
  • zahra amerifard 3
1 PhD of Geography and Rural Planning, Tarbiat modares University
2 Master of Geography and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University
3 Master of Geography and Tourism Planning, Sistan and Baluchestan University
چکیده [English]

         Satisfaction of tourists includes all the experiences that a particular destination gains during their stay, and these feelings and attitudes related to the provision of services and their prices. One of the major indicators in assessing the development of tourism is the growth of the capacity of residential facilities and their quality with the growth of tourism, both domestic and international. In this regard, the aim of this study was to evaluate the quality gap in services offered in hotels and residential centers of Shiraz using the difference between the perceptions and expectations of tourists from the services as well as prioritizing and categorizing them based on the essential elements, Motivational elements and functional elements. For this purpose, the views of 200 tourists who selected three-star hotels in Shiraz for tourism were selected and the questionnaire was distributed among them. The research methodology is descriptive-analytical and its type of applied-development and the method of collecting information in both documentary and survey. a satisfaction rating of 0.840 is the most essential requirement, the existence of a variety of rooms and a variety of attractive and quiet suites with suitable facilities ( Heating and cooling system with 0.965 satisfaction coefficient is the most important functional requirement and the presence of comfortable and clean mattress mattress with satisfaction coefficient of 0.800 is the most important motivating requirement.
Extended Abstract
Introduction:
          Urban areas are often important tourist destinations due to their many historical and cultural attractions. Principally investing to increase the quality of hotel services as the most important part of the accommodation centers and proper location of these centers, will satisfy the tourists. It has further boosted travel demand and injected more into the tourism industry. Achieving these goals in the long run will have other desirable results, such as beautifying the city, raising the level of public culture, acquaintance with other cultures, and ultimately sustainable development. Therefore, planning for development of residential centers requires special sensitivity.
Methodology:
        The present study is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of descriptive-survey method. In the first step, the literature on hotel service quality was used to identify indicators of quality of hotel services. Based on this, 26 indicators were identified and based on questionnaire design as the main research tool in field studies. Statistical population are tourists who stayed in these hotels during their trip to Shiraz. 200 people were selected as the sample and answered the questionnaire. After determining the sample size and selecting them, the standard questionnaire questions were asked to answer. The five-point Likert scale questionnaire was used for scoring: (1 = very poor 2 = poor 3 = average 4 = good and 5 = very good). In the next step, after collecting data based on the SERVQUAL technique, the gap between tourists' perceptions and expectations of tourism products is identified and then the Kano model is used to measure the quality of products and prioritize customer demands. Also, the present research has used content and formal validity techniques and techniques to increase the validity of this step by judging the experts (university professors and experts in the field) on the research questions to determine the extent to which the questions are content and formal.
        Results and discussion:
           SERVQUAL model was used to determine the robust and poor quality characteristics of three-star hotels. The results of this model show that out of the 20 services evaluated in the hotels studied, 13 products are in poor condition and 7 in poor condition. For example, services such as a variety of shops and supermarkets selling equipment, equipment and services required by guests in the hotel with a score of -1.13, a kindergarten and special services for the elderly and disabled and massage and other physical and health services at the hotel. With a negative score of -0.538, the presence of indoor and outdoor landscaping facilities with a waterfront and a proper facade in the hotel with a score of -1 / 411, the presence of tourist service offices in the hotel lobby with a score of -2 / 318, hotel access In terms of accessibility to other parts of the city with a negative score of -2.25, hotel accessibility points with a negative score of -0.552, reasonable price for rooms and services with A negative score of -2.223 and multiple halls for different services with a negative score of -1.264 have the highest gap between tourist expectations and perceptions. That is, the expectations and satisfaction of tourists from these elements have not been met. Overall, it can be said that services that are part of the infrastructure are not in poor condition and there is the least satisfaction among tourists. There is also the least or most satisfaction among tourists with regard to motivational elements, such as natural scenery, destination security, destination accessibility, etc.
After the hotel service quality was assessed using the SERVQUAL model. In the second stage of the study, the elements were classified and requirements were prioritized and the variables were prioritized according to the Kano model. Based on the findings of landscape and natural landscapes (landscapes, landscapes, vegetation and animal life) variety of activities (range and variety of tourism experiences and opportunities, destination comfort and relaxation, communication systems (telephone, internet), Tourist Information Centers & Tips (Map, Brochures) on Motivational Requirements, Experience a New and Different Lifestyle from Urban Life, Arts & Crafts, Local Foods, Cost-Benefit and Quality of Services and Services Provided for Tourism, Traffic And the hustle and bustle of service provided in car service groups in terms of functional requirements and traditions of local customs, Host community friendliness and hospitality, communication and interaction with locals and authentic rural life, accommodation, destination accessibility, road safety, destination security, access to health and medical services, police and police protection and destination cleanliness in the group The basic requirements are met.
Conclusion:
          Achieving these goals in the long run will have other desirable results, such as beautifying the city, raising the level of public culture, acquaintance with other cultures, and ultimately sustainable development. Therefore, planning for development of residential centers requires special sensitivity.
Checking the quality performance of the satisfaction and the gap between the services provided and the expected service quality of the hotels includes useful and effective results. The tourist who wants to pay for a hotel stay has two basic considerations: first, having the opportunity to relax, relax and enjoy the hotel's facilities and services while staying. In other words, the tourist is keen to enjoy the interior, as well as the surrounding environment, both visually and physically, during the journey, both during the journey and during the hotel stay and rest. And presents his view on this key factor.
In this study, the results of the SERVQUAL model show that there is a significant gap between most of the tourists' expectations and perceptions of the quality of hotel services in Shiraz, but the highest gap is observed in the group of functional and motivational requirements including reasonable room prices. Facilities and services, all types of rooms and suites with attractive and comfortable facilities (heating and cooling system, indoor and outdoor green space with a waterproofing and facade and polite staff, parking and Communication systems (telephone, internet) can be found at the hotel, which results agrees in Other studies, including Rehaman and Husnain (2003), Ahmad and Satter (2018), juwaheer (2003), and Karobi and etal (2014). Based on the results of the Kano model, in the planning process for tourism development in the study area and increasing the satisfaction of the travelers with the services provided in the hotels, particular attention should be paid to the essential requirements as they are unavoidable for certain tourists. They are negligent and the lack or low quality of them will make the tourist dissatisfied.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Quality of service
  • three star hotel
  • Shiraz city
  • tourist satisfaction
  • Kano-Servoqual model
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