عنوان مقاله [English]
Identity crisis is one of fundamental problems in the visual aspect of Iran cities. Despite several constructions for civil development, still cities architectural landscape lacks a coherent, legible and with identity. Identity of architectural landscape means a series of features to have a continuous presence in defining architectural view over time and besides responding to new changes and requirements is located in line with its history. Since addressing architecture structure and urbanism of contemporary views for reading out the identity, requires a critical thought on concepts and components influential in forming the architectural elements and especially urban views, we may provide a possibility for revival of visual identity in the view of architectural landscape of contemporary views by recognition of effective and structural concepts. The aim of the present study is identifying these components for explaining the concepts which follows promotion of architectural landscape identity in views. For achieving these elements, the destructive dimensions of identity, landscape and facade have been investigated with the aim of achieving the creative criteria and quality effective on promotion of the identity of architectural landscape of contemporary facades. Research method is a combination of analytical-descriptive methods and with applied objective. The required data was collected through library studies and secondary data analysis method (documentary) and the theoretical principles and literature relating to the study has been used. The overall results of the research show; Improving the identity of architectural landscape in contemporary views in the form of aesthetic components from the semantic and visual dimension, the physical component of the place from the functional and visual dimension, the environmental feature of the place from the climatic and environmental dimension and the semantic component of the place from historical and cultural dimensions can be obtained. Each of them is presented in the form of a conceptual model. In the end, based on the research findings, suggestions for practical solutions for improving the quality of the landscape are presented.
Rapid growth with irregular extension of physical architecture in the domain of contemporary cities architecture formed so that many urban collections couldn’t adapt themselves with this irregular growth, as a result, the visual view of cities architecture which includes a wide range of vies, suffered visual confusion in respect of development. The consequence of this fast and hastily physical growth was lack of control on construction and essential changes in views landscape from the buildings framework. Visual view of the buildings' façade in cities architectural landscape is one of the most important factors constructing the landscape identity. Architectural landscape, in accurate definition, is not a series of facades and case of the city facades but it is a system of all sensible and comprehendible elements which influence human senses and are interpreted and perceived by the audience and in the format of a mental, objective and perceptual category which is the result of the information obtained from buildings, gives identity to the city architecture landscape and view.
The strategy of designing for creating identity and promotion of landscape for architectural landscapes and respecting citizens in creating sense of cultural identity and place attachment that as a very important indicator, has a great impact on the views framework, in designing architectural landscape could be guideline of alterations of contemporary views, providing a given framework that includes designing components which are suitable for the society values and appearance creates necessity of research in this field. Also, regarding the views unorganized status in urban architecture, identifying the components influential on architectural landscape and subsequently creating identity for it finds significance. Promotion of identity of architectural landscape of contemporary views requires identifying the concepts that consider the city architectural view as its framework part along with cultural dimensions and functional requirements so that the meaning of view is promoted to landscape.
In this regard, the present study tries considering the impact of visual view of architectural façades on a city identity, provides a conceptual framework for views as a coordinate generality and answer these questions that what should be evident in views architectural landscape so that it is treated having identity, what criteria and quality in components defining identity in the landscape of contemporary views exist. Concerning significance of view in architectural landscape and since view in architecture domain includes a part of legal and public identity of citizens and considering unorganized status of contemporary views in cities architectural landscape, components and elements which follow identity creation of architectural landscape of contemporary views is one of goals of this research.
For assessment and providing suggestions about identity promotion in the views architectural landscape, at first some criteria for assessment of what is called as optimal identity creating factors relating to views and their architectural landscape should be codified. For this purpose, the considered indicators in respective semantic dimensions were studied using library texts and documents, then their content were qualitatively analyzed. After codifying the considered criteria, in the next stage, with adaption of the posed concepts with each other, the qualities which scrutinize these criteria and show their applied concepts were investigated and used in evaluation and adaption of the features obtained from connectography. In this method, through mapping, the features obtained in the diagram and evaluation of these features based on similarities and relations with each other, those features which have more effect on each other are obtained, from positive features of this method of display, the relation of considered features on the plane that finally produces a mental plan and the relation between components in a clearer form is obtained. This method is based on correcting the methods of obtaining images, analysis and visualization and interpretation of the research data.
Results and discussion:
In the studies performed relating to identity, landscape and view, features of each section was obtained in the format of indictor, component and criterion. Regarding that the criteria obtained from each section, respective components are defined and its applied concepts are shown, for access to the considered factors, common indicators in the components of identity, landscape and view are comparatively and collectively compared to each other and through logical reasoning, the relation between components was deducted and the effective factors were obtained.
The indicators extracted from investigating components creating identity, landscape and view includes 22 cases: 1- background, 2- history, 3- durability, 4- visual quality, 5- aesthetics, 6- culture, 7- performance, 8- permeability, 9- flexibility, 10- law, 11- visual proportions, 12- sound control, 13- climate, 14- nature, 15- vividness, 16- legibility, 17- semiology, 18- view and landscape, 19- meaning, 20- sensory richness, 21- variability, 22- color. In the following, the indicators which overlap each other were investigated through connectogram diagram. In this diagram, data process and analysis is in this way that features which are related to each other are connected to each other through the diagram lines, the lines with similar color show similarity in features of each indicator.
In investigating the features relating to concepts of identity, landscape and view and its analysis through connectogram diagram, the indicators which have more overlap with each other were evaluated and in the following, through overlapping, features of each indicator and their similarity rate in various domains, the criteria effective on promotion of architectural landscape identity promotion in contemporary views and qualities they create were obtained.
When surveying the view is from city angle, the discussion of architectural landscape is posed which finds more extension and a series of physical, social, cultural, environmental and other factors finds significance. The landscape identity includes properties that while stable, follow evolution too and lead to appearance of a coherent and with identity whole. In the present study, some criteria for evaluating identity of views architectural landscape were provided. These features could be codified based on response to questions for determining elements and components creating landscape of views architecture based on the city morphology, definition of physical properties of the region views for promotion of identity based on architectural values, synchronization with the day and world architectural language, native, cultural and belief values of the considered society, climate and land shape, evaluating ability of visual and semantic relation of views with the aim of forming a coherent whole in the landscape scale.