عنوان مقاله [English]
The relationship between architecture and its context is a relationship played by a mutual influence. The lack of a local theoretical framework for recognizing the concept of interaction between context and architecture has caused architecture and urban planning to become more and more detached from the context, and the effects of this lack of proper interaction between context and architecture can be seen in today's Iranian cities. Although there is a belief in the interaction of context and architecture, recognizing, defining, and managing this issue faces fundamental challenges that reveal the need for a deeper understanding of the concept of contextual and architectural interaction. The concept of context has always been complicated by the need to define and study it in the vernacular context of urban architecture. One of the methods that examines the body of space from the aspect of functional desirability and physical-spatial structure is the space syntax technique. This approach, which examines more than anything the structure of the spatial arrangement, introduces the efficiency of a micro-space based on the physical structure of the architectural plan in a spatial configuration system. In this study, the spatial structure of five middle fabric houses in Shiraz was examined in Deptmap software. Concepts such as legibility and spatial communication, which are considered to be the factors of physical contextualization, can be examined through the method of space syntax, so it is possible to analyze the characteristics related to the physical context in the desired houses. In other words, the study of spatial studies considers the readability of an architectural plan to be the result of its spatial organization, and ultimately the placement of spaces in a configured spatial set. In summary, the aim of this study is to provide a conceptual analysis of the physical-spatial structure of Shiraz middle fabric houses in interaction with the context using spacesyntax method. The research findings indicate the role of spatial configuration in restoring the effects of the principles related to context in residential culture in terms of physical foundations.
In contextualism, the components of the shape of the city are not evaluated and studied alone, but are placed in the broader context of the environment. An architectural work is related to the larger urban system and is in a hierarchy of collections. Therefore, contextualism is the link between architecture and urban planning in certain lands (Waterhouse, 1978: 7). In Architecture in the context, Brolin answers some of the fundamental questions about the relationship between context and architecture. It seems that each of the elements that are placed in the external context of the architectural work, only from a formal point of view and according to internal characteristics or position in relation to other elements, beyond its material range, is a field of functions affecting any other entity in the field. Influence them to be exercised. External form elements can be divided into the following general terms:
- Physical environment (natural and artificial);
- Human body;
- Interaction between humans and the environment.
What is commonly called architecture is a natural activity that results from human interaction with the environment. An environment that is no longer just pure matter. Architecture in this case is the manifestation of human relationship with the environment and is no longer considered a tool in the hands of man for unconditional intervention in nature. It is a common quest in both attitudes based on affirming or denying the relationship between man and the environment. Both believe that human beings, and consequently the act of architecture, are influenced by external form features, whether these features are in the form of a human body or arise from the environment. Thus, in terms of the human body, "the art of architecture is the transcription of the states of the human body in the form of buildings" (Scott, 1914:213). In the early stages of being influenced by form features, consciously or unconsciously, absolute imitation of environmental or human form elements was seen in the architectural work. Gradually, the use of these form elements was considered as additional decorations of the building and finally as additional and superfluous items on the building. In response to this, it seems that the process of physical influence, which began with the movement of the absolute imitation of formal elements, in the next stage led to the abstraction of the concepts and principles of the environment or man. In this research, based on the theories of thinkers, an attempt has been made to identify the underlying factors. And since the study context of this paper is very wide, an attempt has been made to summarize the basic theories in tables and then in a qualitative study. Through space syntax technique, they can be analyzed in the spatial structure of a case study. In summary, it can be said that the purpose of this study is to provide a conceptual analysis of the structure of houses in the middle of Shiraz in interaction with the background using the method of spatial arrangement. The question is, to what extent have the physical-spatial structure of the old houses in the middle of Shiraz adhered to the principles of interconnectedness with the context? This research is of qualitative type with interpretive approach and analysis method through space syntax technique.
The methodology in this research is Space Syntax. In this study, the purpose of which is to investigate the physical structure of the houses in the middle fabric of Shiraz in explaining the concept of interconnection with the context; As a case study, the spatial structure of five houses in the middle fabric of Shiraz city has been studied in Deptmap software. The space syntax theory was founded by Hillier and Hanson in 1984 in London and is based on research into the relationship between social and spatial forms. This theory believes that space is the primary core of how social and cultural events occur; However, since space itself is formed during social, cultural and economic processes, it is usually considered as a platform for social and cultural activities, to the extent that its form is not usually considered and is considered invisible (Makrí & Folkesson, 2000) The emphasis of this theory is that in a deep understanding of urban spaces, the role of each urban space individually and the individual characteristics of that space on a micro scale versus its role in combination with other elements of the city and its characteristics on a large scale The urban system is less important. The syntax of space (arrangement of space) is the use of variables obtained from the analysis of the configuration of space in recognizing the patterns of different geometric elements that have been created by buildings and cities (Abbaszadegan, 2002:66). These geometric elements can be a line, a convex space, a point, depending on the type of space being analyzed. The method of space syntax analyzes the sequential relationship of all spaces with each other and presents the characteristics of city spaces graphically as well as mathematical parameters. According to space layout theory, the arrangement of spaces next to each other has a direct effect on how spaces are used.
Result and disscution:
In general, space syntax software, or Depthmap, is a powerful tool under conventional computer systems that, with the entry of architectural and urban plans into its space, has the ability to perform processes such as what is desirable for research. And by using tables, graphs and pictures, which are considered as its output, the researcher can examine different types of mental schemas. In this research, in the analysis of the spatial structure of all five houses, the parameters and measurements of space analysis such as connection, interconnection, depth, base factor and visible space have been calculated. Tables provide maps related to the analysis of each of these parameters in the bed of each house. The analysis of interconnected maps shows that the central space of the pavilion houses has the highest degree of interconnection It is also of secondary importance in terms of the interconnected value of the paths that connect the more interconnected spaces, along with the connecting corridors of the rooms. From the analysis of visual vision, the space of porches in one-story houses is the main factor in creating a pervasive visual vision and communication. This role can be seen in the central space of the pavilion houses (Namaz House, Jamshidi House, Shapouri House) on the first floor. Connection analysis, the central corridor of the ground floor in the house of points in the two perpendicular paths that form the structure of the building, the level of internal visual visibility is higher than other points.
In the field studies and studies that were done in order to identify the form of houses in the middle fabric of Shiraz, during the documentation of a large number of these buildings and their typological classification, finally two types of forms were identified in terms of frequency. In this study, in the comparative analysis of the spatial structure of five houses in the middle of Shiraz, the parameters and measurements of space analysis such as connection, interconnection, depth, base factor and visible space have been calculated. Maps related to the analysis of each of these parameters are given in the bed of each house. Comparative analysis of interconnection maps shows that the central space of the pavilion houses has the highest degree of interconnection. Also important in terms of the interconnected value of the paths that connect the more interconnected spaces, along with the connecting corridors of the rooms. From the analysis of visual vision, the space of porches in one-story houses is the main factor in creating a pervasive visual vision and communication. This role can be seen in the central space of the pavilion houses on the first floor. Since most of the studies conducted with the method of space syntax are related to urban research and contemporary architecture, reflection on the physical structure of the houses in the middle layer of the city can reveal the realities hidden in the heart of valuable Iranian architecture; It explored physical-spatial structures and finally helped us to understand the thought and life of the architectural transition period. A period of architecture whose knowledge and analysis can answer many of the fundamental questions of today's Iranian architectural developments.
7, NO.6, PP.26-34.