تبیین اثرات کارآفرینی بر توسعه پایدار شهری با رویکرد مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری (مطالعه موردی: شهر یاسوج)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد شهرسازی، واحد یاسوج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، یاسوج، ایران

2 استادیار گروه معماری و شهرسازی، واحد یاسوج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، یاسوج، ایران

چکیده

برای پیشگیری از ناپایداری فضاهای شهری، بهره­برداری بهینه از منابع محدود انسانی و طبیعی امری ضروری است. توسعه و ترویج کارآفرینی، که از آن به­عنوان موتور توسعه اقتصادی یاد می­شود، یکی از مهم­ترین اهرم­های مورد تأکید اقتصاددانان و اندیشمندان در راستای نیل به توسعه پایدار شهری است. هدف از پژوهش کمی و کاربردی حاضر، که با ترکیبی از روش­های توصیفی ـ تحلیلی و علی انجام شده است، تبیین اثرات کارآفرینی بر توسعه پایدار شهری است که به صورت موردی در شهر یاسوج انجام شده است. ابزار اصلی پژوهش جهت گردآوری داده­های میدانی، پرسشنامه محقق­ساخته است که روایی و پایایی آن با رعایت مبانی تحقیقات میدانی تأیید شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را شهروندان ساکن در شهر یاسوج تشکیل می­دهد (98130 نفر) که دارای سن بالاتر از 15 سال بوده­اند و با توجه به محدودیت­های مالی و زمانی، 383 نفر از آن­ها به عنوان نمونه آماری برآورد شد و پرسشنامه­ها به صورت کاملاً تصادفی در میان شهروندان توزیع گردید و در نهایت با توجه به مخدودش بودن تعدادی از پرسشنامه­ها، اطلاعات گردآوری شده 375 نفر با استفاده از نرم­افزارهای SPSS و Amos مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد برخورداری شهروندان از متغیرهای تشکیل­دهنده کارآفرینی با میانگین 31/3، بالاتر از حد متوسط بوده و میانگین محاسبه شده برای توسعه پایدار شهر یاسوج با مقدار 02/3، در سطح متوسط قرار دارد و میانگین پایداری اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست­محیطی به­ترتیب 47/2 (پایین­تر از حد متوسط)، 31/3 و 30/3 (بالاتراز حد متوسط) بوده است. نتایج سنجش برازش مدل ساختاری طراحی شده در خصوص اثر کارآفرینی بر توسعه پایدار شهری نشان داد معیارهای برآورد شده مدل مذکور در تطبیق با معیارهای پیشنهادی در وضعیت مطلوبی قرار دارند و کارآفرینی با اثر کل 662/0، دارای تأثیر آماری معناداری بر توسعه پایدار شهری بوده است و توانسته است 44 درصد از واریانس توسعه پایدار شهری در محدوده مطالعاتی را تبیین نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explain the Effects of Entrepreneurship on Urban Sustainable Development with the Structural Equation Modeling Approach (Case study: Yasuj City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohreh Deimiyad 1
  • Yaghowb Peyvastehgar 2
1 Master of Urban Planning, Yasuj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasuj, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture and Urban Planning, Yasuj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasuj, Iran
چکیده [English]

To prevent the instability of urban spaces, it is essential to make optimal use of limited human and natural resources. Entrepreneurship Development and Promotion, it is known as the engine of economic development. Is one of the most important levers emphasized by economists and thinkers to achieve sustainable development of the city. The purpose of this quantitative and applied research is Which has been done with a combination of descriptive-analytical and causal methods, Explains the effects of entrepreneurship on sustainable urban development That It has been done as a case study in Yasuj city. The main tool for collecting field data, is a researcher-made questionnaire That Its validity and reliability have been confirmed by observing the principles and foundations of field research. Is a statistical community of research Including citizens living in Yasuj (98130 people) That They were over 15 years old and Due to financial and time constraints, it was estimated that 383 of them were statistical samples and The questionnaires were distributed quite randomly among the citizens and finally Due to the limited number of questionnaires, Data collected 375 people Has been analyzed Using SPSS and Amos software. The results showed Citizens' enjoyment of the variables that make up entrepreneurship with an average of 3.31, Is Above average level and Average calculated for sustainable development of Yasuj city with a value of 3.02, located in the middle level and Average calculated for Economic, social and environmental sustainability Has been in order 2.47 (below average), 3.31 and 3.30 (above average). It also showed the results of measuring the fit of the designed structural model The effect of entrepreneurship on sustainable urban development That Estimated criteria of the model in compliance with the proposed criteria They are in good condition and Entrepreneurship with a total effect of 0.662, Has had a significant statistical impact on sustainable urban development and Entrepreneurship has been able to Explain 44% of the variance of sustainable urban development in the study area.
Extended Abstract
Introduction
It is not unknown to anyone The worthy role of entrepreneurship and its impact on Economic growth and development, Competition, Job creation, Sustainable employment, Establishment and development of social justice, Widespread and active presence in global markets, Poverty alleviation and increase of life expectancy, Happy living and other social ideals. Strategic achievement of entrepreneurial policy, there are two important consequences of job creation and welfare That these two together Will be in the service of social development. Entrepreneurship development while providing the ground for sustainable development, it will solve economic, social and other problems. In fact, entrepreneurship, which means discovering and exploiting opportunities in order to create value in various economic, social and cultural areas of society. It forms the basis of sustainable development and It is known as an important and key stimulus for the future development concerns of the whole society.
In general, urbanization and entrepreneurship are the main demographic facts of the early 21st century. Studies show that no economy is developed without urbanization. The direct and strong connection between urbanization and entrepreneurship can be compared to a very beautiful and at the same time strong cycle. In this cycle, entrepreneurs accelerate urbanization and Urbanization stimulates the innovation and dynamism of entrepreneurs in attracting income and job creation activities in various sectors of industry, services, business of entrepreneurs. Based on the above, it can be concluded that sustainable urban development faces various challenges and One of the most effective ways to overcome these challenges is to Development and promotion of entrepreneurship in urban spaces. Surveys also show Theoretically, there is a reciprocal relationship between entrepreneurship and sustainable urban development. Hence, considering the benefits mentioned about the effects of entrepreneurship on the sustainable development of cities, Experimental study of the extent and type of effects of entrepreneurship on sustainable urban development seems necessary and logical. Therefore, the main questions of this research are: What is the situation of Yasuj citizens in terms of having entrepreneurial indicators? What is the status of sustainable development indicators in Yasuj? and what is the effect of entrepreneurship on sustainable urban development in Yasuj?
 
Methodology
The present quantitative research is of the applied research type That It has been done with a combination of descriptive-analytical and causal methods. The data collection method has been a combination of documentary and field methods (Interview and completion of the questionnaire). The study area was the city of Yasuj and The statistical population of the study includes 98130 citizens of Yasuj That They are over 15 years old. Due to financial and time constraints and the impossibility of census, using sample size estimation methods, 383 people were estimated as a statistical sample and at the time of questionnaire analysis, due to the distortion of some of them, has been analyzed 375 questionnaires. The main tool of researchers to collect the required data The questionnaire was made by a researcher That Its validity has been confirmed by referring to university professors and relevant experts. Generally, the research process has been as follows After collecting field data, the individual characteristics of the respondents are described and more The current situation of citizens enjoying entrepreneurial indicators and also The status of sustainable development indicators in the study area has been reviewed. Then, in the form of structural equation modeling, the effect of entrepreneurship on indicators of sustainable urban development has been investigated. SPSS and Amos software were used to analyze the collected data.
 
Results and discussion
The research results showed The status of citizens living in Yasuj city of the variables that make up the entrepreneurship index It is in good condition. This situation can be a good basis for the development of entrepreneurship among the citizens of the study area. Also review the general situation of sustainable development in Yasuj, which is a combination of the above three dimensions, Shows the mean calculated with the value of 3.02, There was no statistically significant difference with the mean and It is in the middle level.  The results showed the designed model Status of all estimated criteria in the research model It has a high compliance with the desired values ​​(suggested criteria) and In general, this can be said The structural model is drawn Has the necessary credit for Identifying the effect of entrepreneurship on sustainable urban development in Yasuj.  The final results showed the research model Entrepreneurship has succeeded Explain about 44% of the variance of sustainable urban development in the study area. Therefore, it can be said that Entrepreneurship due to the various positive social, economic and environmental effects it has on host communities, it can be effective in the sustainable development of Yasuj city.
 
Conclusion
In order to remove the obstacles and challenges of sustainable urban development, Numerous strategies have been proposed by experts and specialists in economics and urban management. Promoting and developing entrepreneurship among citizens Is one of the most important of these strategies that If it is used in urban development policies, it has many benefits and advantages. According to the results Familiarity of a significant percentage of citizens with the concept of entrepreneurship and high percentage of them have entrepreneurial variables, Inadequate economic stability in Yasuj and Statistically significant effect of entrepreneurship on sustainable development of Yasuj), Promotion and development of entrepreneurship in Yasuj By holding training courses and classes on different types of entrepreneurship, Establish two-way communication between exemplary entrepreneurs and citizens, Financial support for citizens (Allocation of free loans, low interest loans with appropriate repayment period conditions), It seems necessary Guarantee the purchase of products and services in the early stages of work, Allocate adequate physical space to start work, Encourage citizens to start entrepreneurial activities by awarding various prizes, Providing entrepreneurs with access to major markets for the supply and sale of products, Facilitate obtaining administrative and legal permits, Consider special discounts and subsidies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurship
  • Sustainability
  • Urban Sustainable Development
  • Modeling
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