عنوان مقاله [English]
Cities usually have a series of facilities and services such as airports, rail and sea terminals, entertainment centers, shops, medical centers, etc., depending on the geographical, political, economic and cultural location and appropriate to the civil society. In the tourism industry, in most cases, they are considered as entry and exit points and providing accommodation for tourists, while today, cities can become a destination by benefiting from a variety of attractions and events and being adjacent to a series of surrounding attractions. They have a tourist attraction. The main purpose of this study is to present a geomarketing model based on the development of urban tourism infrastructure in Tehran using geographic information systems (geomarketing) tools that it is possible site selection of urban tourism infrastructure in Tehran and therefore, it is led to facilitate and strengthen the relationship between the tourist (customer) and the host community (seller). It also assists city managers in making metropolitan decisions. The methodology of this study is qualitative and grounded theory approach. It is used semi structure interviews to collect data and analysis were done by Strauss and Corbin method and paradigm model. sampling method was by theoretical sampling and was done using targeted (judgmental) techniques. The statistical population was selected from among active experts and managers that are worked in public and private sectors of tourism and urban management. The results of data obtained from interviews during open, axial and selective coding process that led to identify geomarketing model based on the development of urban tourism infrastructure in Tehran was based on grounded theory. The finding of this study indicate that managers and Private tourism activists and urban management in Tehran to turn Tehran into an urban tourism destination must attention to identified all of factors and indicators. Using the present model and geomarketing data and information for urban land use planning and tourism and urban needs site selection, design and execution of all projects to have a sustainable tourism annex. So that designs, elements and urban events must have attractive option for attract tourists and it is possible accessing them through digitals maps.
Geomarketing is a new and innovative method that can facilitate the urban tourism development for destinations (Buhalis & Amaranggana, 2013:553; Ali & Frew, 2014:262). on the other hand, geomarketing is a tool to identify and forecast the needs of tourists and provide opportunities to supply requested, needs, awareness and motivation of tourists to visit the destinations. This cause to be possible tourists’ satisfaction and achieving organizational goals (sustainable income, occupation create, …). Therefore, this process requires an approach that should manage and use information about tourist destinations and places (Faraji Sabokbar et al, 2012: 22). Accordingly, it is necessary to awareness of factors and components of affecting the development of urban tourism infrastructure in this field to be able to take action essential performances. The purpose of this study is providing a comprehensive framework of geomarketing based on the development of urban tourism infrastructures in Tehran to indicate what factors are effective for the design of location-based marketing and lead to the development of urban tourism infrastructures in Tehran. Insight establishment into geomarketing and tourist’s behavior of in urban space in terms of personal and internal characteristics help tourism industry and urban management to encourage tourists to visit places and destinations of urban tourism and develop their relationships.
The methodology of this study is qualitative and grounded theory approach. It is used semi structure interviews to collect data and analysis were done by Strauss and Corbin method and paradigm model. sampling method was by theoretical sampling and was done using targeted (judgmental) techniques. Based on systematic model of grounded theory, were selected active experts and managers that are worked in private and public tourism sectors. All interviews were coded. Totally, it was interviewed by 26 persons. Data collection continued until theoretical saturation of the categories, so that it was not possible to access other new data. In order to determine the validity of the theory based on the indicators of appropriateness and application of Strauss and Corbin, 1990 was examined and the opinions of the interviewees in this field were examined. On the other hand, regarding the proportion criteria, three of the interviewees exchanged views about the proportionality of the research findings with the experimental world, and in the case of naming, some categories were modified. In addition, it was done the constant applicability and comparison criteria with background and theoretical research. In this regard, the formulation of semi-structured questions in each stage of the interviews, by removing the problems from them, put into practice the applicability of the research.
Results and discussion:
The results of this study include the presentation of casual factors, contexts, interventions, categories based, consequences and formulation of strategies for the development of geomarketing based on the development of urban tourism infrastructure in Tehran, which is presented in the final model of the research. Geomarketing studies and data is one of the central issues that help urban management in effective and decision-making in creating urban tourism infrastructure. If the urban management of Tehran considers the implementation of tourism infrastructure along with location-based marketing planning (geomarketing) in a comprehensive, integrated and intelligent in priority, either strengthening the welfare needs of citizens, creating social vitality, economic prosperity, high employment, etc., or they also provide a significant part of the financial resources of municipalities. Systems providing location-based services present a wide variety of spatial information such as location and access to urban attractions and facilities, accommodation and reception centers, medical centers, souvenir and handicraft stores, department stores, Fuel stations, etc. in the form of digital graphic maps with their descriptive specifications, including spatial and temporal distance, routing, price and quality of services and distance to other centers, etc. are provided to guide and inform citizens and tourists.
Geomarketing studies and data is one of the central issues that help urban management in effective and decision-making in creating urban tourism infrastructure. In urban planning, in order to transformation of Tehran to tourism destination, it is necessary to use geomarketing information and data, while planning lands and locating urban needs, to design and implement all projects. They are required to have a sustainable tourism attachment, so that urban designs, elements and events are attractive to tourists and can be accessed through digital maps. In this regard, it is proposed to form a destination marketing management department based on new technologies and location based in urban management organizations in Tehran with the aim of effective marketing and integration of members and pillars of urban tourism management system.
In order to review the results, future researchers are recommended to use fuzzy Delphi technique to identify and prioritize the factors affecting urban tourism infrastructure. It is also suggested to measure the effects of geomarketing on other areas of tourism.
This research has been done cross-sectionally, therefore, it makes it difficult to draw conclusions about causality. The large number of questions in the questionnaires led to the prolongation of its implementation time, which did not affect the accuracy of the participants' answers.